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Sunday, July 25th 2010, 4:52pm

Esercito Italiano

Esercito Italiano[/size]

1937 Overview
8 Infantry Divisions
4 Celeri Divisions
4 Alpini Divisions
2 Arditi Divisions
2 Armoured Divisions
1 Parachute Regiment

The Esercito Italiano became much smaller than it's European peers during the 1930s with the various reforms shedding much manpower. The result was a marked reduction in personnel costs, of which some was put back into upgrading Great War equipment to modern standards. The army is split between professional and conscript men, with the ratio creeping upwards year on year towards 50:50, although the limited duration military service for young men ensures there is a much larger manpower pool to call upon if pressed.

Infantry Divisions

Division Name and Title Infantry Regiments Artillery Regiment
1st Superga 1st 2nd 3rd 201st
28th Aosta 4th 5th 6th 202th
50th Regina 7th 8th 9th 203rd
14th Isonzo 10th 11th 12th 204th
10th Piave 13th 14th 15th 205th
26th Assietta 16th 17th 18th 206th
11th Brennero 19th 20th 21st 207th
101st Trieste 22nd 23rd 24th 208th
102nd Trento 25th 26th 27th 209th
2nd Sforzesca 28th 29th 30th 210th

Division Name and Title Alpini Regiments Artillery Regiment
1st Taurinense 1st 2nd 3rd 251st
2nd Tridentina 4th 5th 6th 252th
3rd Julia 7th 8th 9th 253rd
4th Cuneense 10th 11th 12th 254th

The Alpini were first formed in 1872 and were specialised mountain troops, with considerable proficiency in skiing and climbing. Four divisions were left after the 1914 war.

Division Name and Title Arditi Regiments

1st Trentino 1st 2nd 3rd
2nd Valle D'Aosta 4th 5th 6th

The Arditi were the first shock troops and created in 1915. They specialise in assault tasks and have considerable firepower from the combination of smgs, grenades and mortars.

2 Celeri Divisions were created in 1932/33. Essentially they were the standard infantry divisions equipped with bicycles and trucks. SuperEsercito hoped to replace 4 further infantry divisions with Celeri divisions by 1935 but these plans were too optimistic by the supply of vehicles available.

The first Italian armoured unit was formed in 1926. As of 1932, when the reforms started, there were 2 armoured divisions Ariete and Centauro. They were notably tank-light, because of a lack of tanks. In 1933-34 a semovente regiment equipped with the S13/33 was added to the divisions.

9th Parachute Assault Regiment
The Folgore (thunderbolt) were formed in 1929 after the death of Generale Guidoni. They had previously gained notoriety in the 1914 war, during actions against Austria where they earned the nickname Col Moschin. The training was arduous, taking 1 year to complete. This regiment is made up entirely from professionals.

This post has been edited 1 times, last edit by "Red Admiral" (Oct 22nd 2011, 4:35pm)


Sunday, July 25th 2010, 4:59pm

[size=5]Vehicles - Tanks[/size]

Fiat 2000 Heavy Tanks
Number : 20
Production from 1917/18
Limited use because of size, weight and low mobility. More akin to a mobile fortress.

Crew 10
Engine 240hp - gasoline
Weight 40 tons
Speed 6mph
Armament 6 x 6.5mm MG, 1 x 65mm/17 Main Gun
Length 24' 3"
Width 10' 2"
Height 12' 5"
Armor 15 - 20mm

Modifications were made to armament in the mid 20s. Now mounting 4 x 6.5mm MG, 2 x 37/40, 1x65/17

Fiat 3000 Light Tanks
Number : c.100
The Fiat 3000, whose design was based on that of the French Renault FT 17, was the first tank to be produced in series in Italy. It was to be the standard tank of the emerging Italian armoured units in World War 1. Although 1400 units were ordered, with deliveries to begin in May 1919, the end of the war caused the original order to be cancelled, only 100 were delivered. The first Fiat 3000s entered service in 1921.

Crew 2
Engine 63hp - gasoline
Weight 6 tons
Speed 18mph
Armament 1 x 37mm/40
Length 13' 6"
Width 5' 4"
Height 7' 2"
Armor 6 - 16mm

M15/30 Medium Tanks
Number : 100

The M15/30 was tested in prototype form in 1931. It was larger and heavier than the M.3000 but more mobile. A lower centre of gravity meant it was more suited to a mountainous environment. 94 vehicles were produced 1932-33 and went into service with the Ariete and Centauro divisions. The 65/17 gun was useful against infantry, but mechanical reliability plagued the series and they were quickly discarded in favour of other types. The chassis was later used as a basis for the Semovente 37/54 and a bridge laying unit.

Crew 3
Engine 100hp - petrol
Weight 15 tons
Speed 30kph
Armament : 2 x 6.5 MG, 1 x 65mm / 17 gun
Length 16' 2"
Width 7' 6"
Height 7' 3"
Armor 14 - 30mm

A fast tank with Christie suspension. Something between a BT series and a Crusader. 13tons weight with 4 man crew and a 47mm main gun. Pretty fast but mechanical reliability is questionable. Saw action in South America in 1935.

Developed in the late 1930s to provide Italy with a new tank to replace the older M13 and M15 types. A lot of designs were considered but eventually an adequate type was adopted to get something reliable into service. This caused some debate given the increase in armament of other tanks around the world. The 75/46 was selected for it's availability and gave enough performance with it's APHE shell against most period tanks. Most tanks were fitted with the 105/25 which was a better support weapon in fitting with the perceived role. Thick armour was limited to the frontal arc to reduce weight.

Crew: 4
Weight: 26tons Length: 7.02m Width: 3.08m Height: 2.48m
Engine: Isotta-Fraschini L1506 liquid-cooled petrol, 350hp
Speed: 41km/h Power/weight: 14hp/ton Range: 250km
Armament: 1 x 75/46 or 1x105/25 and 2 x 8mm mgs
Armour: Hull: 50mm front 30mm side/rear 20mm roof/bottom , Turret: 75mm front 50mm sides 20mm roof

This post has been edited 1 times, last edit by "Red Admiral" (Sep 18th 2010, 6:52pm)


Sunday, July 25th 2010, 5:02pm

[size=5]Vehicles - Semovente[/size]

Semovente S37/33 and S65/33
Number : 200
Based on previous M15/30 chassis
Crew 3
Engine 110hp - petrol
Weight 13 tons
Speed 35kph
Armament : 1 x 37/54, 1 x 6.5 MG or 1 x 65/17, 1x6.5 MG
Length 4.92m
Width 2.20m
Height 1.60m
Armor 14 - 30mm

Semovente 105/25, 75/18 and 47/32
Developed to a joint requirement with the UKN and entered service in 1935. The 105mm gun is mounted in a high elevation mounting and serves as self-propelled artillery. The 75/18 is to a Dutch requirement for an assault gun and includes increased frontal armour. The 47/32 is in place of a proper tank, being considerably cheaper and more suited to the defensive warfare envisaged. More than 300 were built for Italy in 1935-37.

Crew: 4
Weight: 21tons Length: 6.00m Width: 3.00m Height: 1.80m
Engine: Isotta-Fraschini L1506 liquid-cooled petrol, 300hp
Speed: 40km/h Power/weight: 14hp/ton Range: 160km
Armament: 1 x 105/25, 75/18 or 47/32 and 2 x 7.35mm mgs
Armour: 30mm front/sides/rear 20mm roof/bottom

Semovente 149/19
The larger M26 chassis proved useful in being able to mount a larger calibre weapon for fire support. The first to emerge was the 149/19 howitzer version which had a blocky superstructure and a limited traverse mounting with thin armour.

Crew: 5
Weight: 27tons Length: 6.31m Width: 3.08m Height: 2.74m
Engine: Isotta-Fraschini L1506 liquid-cooled petrol, 350hp
Speed: 38km/h Power/weight: 13hp/ton Range: 250km
Armament: 1 x 149/19 and 1 x 8mm mgs
Armour: Hull: 50mm front 30mm side/rear 20mm roof/bottom Superstructure: 10mm


Sunday, July 25th 2010, 5:02pm

[size=5]Vehicles - Amoured Cars[/size]

Number : 250
A large armoured car for use in Tripolitania and Cyrenaica instead of more expensive tanks.
Crew: 4
Engine: Isotta-Fraschini L1406 300hp
Weight: 12tons Length 5.90m Width: 2.60m Height 2.40m
Speed: 100km/h Power/Weight: 25hp/ton Range: 800km
Armament: 1x37mm, 2x6.5mm mg
Armour: 30mm-10mm


Sunday, July 25th 2010, 5:04pm

Artillery - Field Guns


Barrel Length : 1,150 m
Total weight : 556 Kg with shield
Elevation : -7° to +20°
Traverse : 8°
Rate of Fire : 5-6 rounds/minute
Muzzle Velocity : 348 m/s
Range : 6,5 Km
Mostly replaced by 75/18 but still in use with some lpini units.


Barrel length : 1,557 m
Total weight : 1065 Kg
Elevation : -10° to +45°
Traverse : 50°
Rate of Fire : 6-8 rounds/minute
Muzzle Velocity : 425 m/s
Range : 9,5 Km
Mountain gun / Field Howitzer replacing 65/17. Larger shell and longer range.


Barrel Length : 26,25 m
Total Weight : 1980 Kg
Elevation : de -10° à +60°
Traverse : 50°
Rate of Fire : 7-8 rounds/minute
Muzzle Velocity : 510 m/s
Range : 11,0 Km
Standard field Artillery piece


Barrel length : 6,036 m
Total weight : 11430 Kg
Elevation : 0° to 45°
Traverse : 57°
Rate of Fire : 1 coup/minute
Muzzle Velocity : 800 m/s
Range : 23,7 Km
Standard artillery regiment piece.


Sunday, July 25th 2010, 5:05pm

Artillery - Anti-Aircraft Guns

Breda 13.2mm machine gun
Calibre 13.2mm x 99
Muzzle Velocity 900 m/s
Projectile Weight 43g with 3.4g HE
Gun weight: 47,5 kg
Mounting weight: 215 kg
Length: 1.652 mm
Rate of Fire 500rpm
Heavy machine gun

OTO-Madsen 25mm cannon

Calibre: 25x157 240g
Muzzle velocity: 1000m/s
Barrel Length: 1.92m
Weight in action: 772kg
Elevation: -10° to +85°
Traverse: 360°
Rate of fire: 400rpm
Altitude: 3000m
New design of mounting using the naval 25/77 gun to replace the Breda 13.2mm with a more powerful design. Belt feed from 100 round containers allows a high rate of fire to be maintained.


Barrel Length : 3,450 m
Total Weight : 3330 Kg
Elevation : 0° to +90°
Traverse : 360°
Rate of Fire : 15 rounds/minute
Muzzle Velocity : 750 m/s
Range : 13 Km
Altitude : 8,5 Km
Mobile anti-aircraft gun design from 1920s


Barrel Length : 5,334 m
Total Weight : 4200 Kg
Elevation : 0° to +90°
Traverse : 360°
Rate of Fire : 15-20 rounds/minute
Muzzle Velocity : 1040 m/s
Range : 17 Km
Altitude : 11,6 Km
New mobile anti-aircraft gun with RPC


Barrel Length : 6,500 m
Total Weight : 7120 Kg
Elevation : -5° to +85°
Traverse : 360°
Rate of Fire : 20 rounds/minute
Muzzle Velocity : 1050 m/s
Range : 24,2 Km
Altitude : 16 Km
Naval gun adapted for land use. Mostly fixed mountings due to size and weight

This post has been edited 1 times, last edit by "Red Admiral" (Jul 26th 2010, 8:52pm)


Sunday, July 25th 2010, 5:06pm

Artillery - Anti-Tank Guns

Solothurn S-18/1000

Barrel Length : 1,447 m
Total Weight : 54kg
Elevation : Free
Traverse : Free
Rate of Fire : 30rpm
Muzzle Velocity : 850m/s
Penetration : Up to 40mm


Barrel Length : 1,680 m
Total Weight : 277 Kg
Elevation : -10° to +56°
Traverse : 60°
Rate of Fire : 7-8 coups/minute
Muzzle Velocity : 630 m/s
Range : 7 Km
Penetration : 50mm at 500m


Sunday, July 25th 2010, 5:07pm

Small Arms

Beretta Mod.34 Automatic Pistol

Caliber 9mm x 17
Muzzle velocity: 245m/s
Total Length 150 mm Barrel Length 86.5 mm Height 120.5mm
Weight 0.617 kg Max
Rate of Fire 40 Rounds Per Minute Ave Rate of Fire 14 Rounds Per Minute
Max Range 600 Meters Effective Range 25 Meters
Magazine 7 Rounds
In large-scale service as sidearm alongside Glisenti M.1910

Carcano Mod. 91 Rifle

Year 1891
Caliber 6.5mm x 52
Muzzle velocity: 700m/s 162gr full metal jacket
Total Length 1285 mm Barrel Length 780 mm Bayonet Length 414 mm
Weight 4.07 kg
Rate of Fire 15rpm
Max Range 2000 Meters Effective Range 800 Meters
Magazine 6 Round Clip
Old design being phased out of service

Carcano Mod. 35 Corto Rifle

Year 1891/1935
Caliber 7.35x51
Muzzle velocity: 756m/s 128gr spitzer
Total Length 1020 mm Barrel Length 562 mm
Weight 3.2 kg
Rate of Fire 15rpm
Max Range 2000 Meters Effective Range 800 Meters
Magazine 6 Round Clip, 200m fixed sights. Shorter rifle chambered for 7.35mm round replacing older 1891 model.

Breda Mod.31

Calibre : 7.35x51 and 6.5x52
Muzzle velocity: 720m/s 128gr (7.35mm)
Loading technique: gas operated automatic/semi-automatic
Total length: 1000mm Barrel length: 483mm
Weight: 5.25kg loaded
Max Range: 2000m
Effective range: 400m
Magazine: 25 rounds
Rate of fire: 600rpm
Limited issue replacement of M.1891 rifle. Quite a heavy design. Currently undergoing redesign to lighten the weapon. Not particularly reliable.

Moschetto Automatico OVP

Calibre: 9mm x 17
Muzzle Velocity: 300m/s
Loading technique: blowback automatic
Total length: 1020mm Barrel length: 300mm
Weight: 3.2kg
Effective Range: 100m
Rate of fire: 900rpm
Magazine: 10, 20 or 40 rounds
Sub-machine gun, refined version of Villar-Perosa. Not many still in service.

Beretta MAB M1935

Calibre: 9mm x 19 Parabellum
Muzzle Velocity: 350m/s
Loading technique: blowback semi-automatic
Total length: 946mm Barrel length: 315mm
Weight: 4.2kg
Effective Range: 150m
Magazine: 10 or 20 rounds
New semi-automatic sub machine gun for use by Carabinieri

Beretta MAB M1938

Calibre: 9mm x 19 Fiocchi
Muzzle Velocity: 420m/s
Loading technique: blowback automatic
Total length: 946mm Barrel length: 315mm
Weight: 4.2kg
Effective Range: 250m
Magazine: 10, 20, 30 or 40 rounds
Rate of fire: 600rpm or single shot
New sub machine gun issued to some units

MAR 38

Calibre : 7.35x51
Muzzle velocity: 770m/s
Total Length: 1070mm Barrel length: 580mm
Weight: 7.6kg
Max Range: 2200m Eff Range: 900m
Magazine: 81 round drum
Rate of fire: 550rpm
Gas and spring operated LMG. Very simple and cheap to manufacture. No oil required for the mechanism means its more suitable for desert use.

This post has been edited 3 times, last edit by "Red Admiral" (Jul 25th 2010, 5:16pm)


Sunday, July 25th 2010, 5:08pm

Infantry Support Weapons

Fiat-Revelli M14 MG

Calibre : 6.5 mm x 52
Muzzle velocity: 660m/s
Barrel length: 650mm
Weight: 22kg without tripod
Max Range: 4000m Eff Range: 1000m
Magazine: 50 round strips
Rate of fire: 500rpm
Water cooled machine gun from WWI

Breda M37

Calibre : 8 x 59RB
Muzzle velocity: 795m/s
Total Length: 1270mm Barrel length: 780mm
Weight: 19.4kg
Max Range: 5200m Eff Range: 1000m
Magazine: 50 round belt
Rate of fire: 600rpm
New air cooled medium machine gun

Mortaio Brixia Modello 35

Calibre : 45mm
Range : 530 m
Elevation : 10° to 90°
Total Weight : kg. 15.5
Rate of fire : 15 rounds/minute
Light mortar

Mortaio da 81 Mod. 27

Calibre : 81mm
Range : min. 150 m - max 3100 m
Traverse : 160°
Elevation : 45° to 90°
Total Weight : kg. 59
Length : 1150mm
Rate of fire : 30 - 35 rounds/minute
81mm mortar in large-scale use to increase firepower of infantry units.

This post has been edited 3 times, last edit by "Red Admiral" (Jul 25th 2010, 5:20pm)


Sunday, July 25th 2010, 5:09pm

Armoured Trains

Group based in La Spezia:

T.A. 120/1/S with 4 120/45 mm and 2 13.2 mm machine guns
T.A. 120/2/S with 4 120/45 mm and 2 13.2 mm machine guns
T.A. 120/3/S with 4 120/45 mm and 2 13.2 mm machine guns
T.A. 120/4/S with 4 120/45 mm and 2 13.2 mm machine guns
T.A. 152/5/S with 5 152/40 mm and 2 13.2 mm machine guns
T.A. 76/1/S with 6 76/40 mm and 2 13.2 mm machine guns

Group based in Taranto:

T.A. 152/1/T with 4 152/40 mm, 2 76/40mm and 2 13.2 mm machine guns
T.A. 152/2/T with 4 152/40 mm, 2 76/40mm and 2 13.2 mm machine guns
T.A. 152/3/T with 4 152/40 mm, 2 76/40mm and 2 13.2 mm machine guns
T.A. 152/4/T with 4 152/40 mm, 2 76/40mm and 2 13.2 mm machine guns
T.A. 102/1/T with 6 guns 102/35 and 2 13.2 mm machine guns
T.A. 76/1/T with 4 guns 76/40 and 2 13.2 machine guns