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Wednesday, October 17th 2012, 10:24pm

Focke Wulf Fw190F Close-support Fighter Aircraft

Technical Description

Low wing cantilever monoplane. Wing in one piece, the front spar being continuous and passing through the fuselage, to which it is attached at three points – two on the upper flange and one on the lower. The rear spar is in two sections, the roots being attached to the sides of the fuselage by normal pin joints. Two spar wing structure with widely-spaced flange plate former ribs, span-wise Z-section stringers and a stressed metal skin. The spars are built up of flanged plates which, inboard from the ailerons, are reinforced by L-section extrusions and progressively thickened end caps to form I-section members. Outboard of ailerons the spars have single integral flanges. The front spar from the points of attachment of the undercarriage to the upper attachments to the fuselage is cranked inward, the undercarriage when retracted lying ahead of the front spar. The gun and undercarriage bays have specially strengthened ribs. Metal framed, fabric covered ailerons. Electrically operated all metal split trailing-edge flaps between ailerons and fuselage.

Fuselage is an all-metal monocoque structure built-up of bulkheads, flanged formers, Z-section stringers and a smooth stressed skin covering. The front inverted U-shaped bulkhead attaches to the upper flange of the front spar and on the front face of the bulkhead and spar are five attachment points for the engine mounting – three on the spar and two on the bulkhead. All other bulkheads and frames conform to the cross-section of the fuselage. The extreme rear section is integral with the fin and is detachable from the main structure. Large detachable panel in the underside of the fuselage extending from the engine bay to rear of cockpit for installation and removal of fuel tanks. The lower part of the engine cowling and the engine covers are fabricated from 6mm armour plate, and additional armour is fitted to the ventral fuselage, the total weight of armour being approximately 380 kg

Cantilever monoplane type tail unit. Fin integral with the rear fuselage. Electrically operated adjustable single-spar tailplane and fin and fabric covered control surfaces. Fixed perforated trim tabs in rudder and elevators. Fin-rear fuselage assembly houses the electric tailplane incidence gear and spring for lowering the tail wheel.

Retractable type undercarriage. Main cantilever oleo-legs are hinged ahead of the front spar and retract inwardly, fairing plates on legs and wheels and on the undersurface of the wings closing the apertures when the wheels are raised. Electrical retraction. The tail wheel is also partially retracted by a cable connected to the starboard oleo-leg. Tail wheel has spring centering and centre-lock, the latter operating when the control column is pulled hard back.

One BMW 801D fourteen-cylinder two-row radial air-cooled geared and supercharged engine in low-drag cowling with induced fan cooling, rated at 1,700 hp for takeoff. The whole engine unit, complete with oil coolers, is attached to the front bulkhead and spar by five bolts. Protected fuel tanks beneath the cockpit floor. Oil tank (42 litres) in fuselage. Reverse flow oil coolers in armoured annual ring which forms the cowl leading edge. VDM airscrew with electric pitch change and metal blades.

Pilot’s cockpit over trailing edge of wing with clear view canopy and tail fairing, the whole of which slides aft to give access to the cockpit and which may be jettisoned complete in an emergency. Pilot’s seat is armoured and is further backed by an armoured bulkhead and headrest, the latter forming part of the jettisonable cockpit canopy. Bullet proof windscreen. The wireless aerial lead is in the roof the canopy. The canopy cannot be opened in the air except to be jettisoned. Armament comprises two 13mm MG131 with 220 rounds of ammunition in the forward fuselage decking and two 20mm MG201 with 150 rounds of ammunition per gun , located in the wing roots and synchronised to fire through the propeller arc. Attachment point beneath the centre section of the wing for one bomb up to 1,000 kg weight or for one 240-litre jettisonable auxiliary fuel tank; attachment points beneath each wing outer panel for bombs and air-to-ground rockets.

Wing span 10.5 metres; length 8.84 metres; height 3.96 metres. Wing area 18.3 metres. Empty weight 3,330 kg; normal loaded weight 4,410 kg; maximum take-off weight 4,930 kg.

Maximum speed 635 kph at 5,500 metres; 550 kph at sea level. Initial climb rate 640 metres/second; service ceiling 10,600 metres. Normal range 800 kilometres.


Tuesday, October 23rd 2012, 9:54pm

Junkers Ju288A Medium Bomber Aircraft

Technical Description

Shoulder wing cantilever monoplane. Structure in three sections, the centre-section which incorporates a portion of the fuselage and the two outer sections with semi-circular wing tips. Two-spar wing structure. All but a few former ribs are girder trusses, solid plate ribs being used at points of stress only. Smooth outer stress-bearing skin riveted to spars and former ribs. Slotted ailerons on outer sections. Electrically operated split flaps. Maximum flap angle 55 degrees. Ailerons and flaps are linked so that the ailerons droop when the flaps are lowered. Leading edge of the outer wing-section is double skinned and intervening space fed with hot air through lagged pipes in leading edge. Air enters at bottom of the sandwich between each nose rib and passes forward and upward around the leading edge and escapes into wing just forward of the front spar flange and finally to the atmosphere through apertures at the aileron hinges.

Fuselage is an all-metal structure in three sections, comprising the nose section accommodating the crew, the section which is integral with the wing centre-section section and the rear fuselage. Main structure is built up of a number of formers and stringers to which the stressed skin is riveted.

Cantilever monoplane type tail unit with twin fins and rudders. Tailplane and fins each have two spars and the entire unit, including the movable surfaces, is covered with a metal skin. Fins are fitted with fixed slats, the trailing-edges of the slats being on the inside of the fins. Rudders have very narrow horn balances, used mostly for mass balancing, and trimming tabs extending the full length of the trailing edge. Tailplane incidence is automatically changed when the landing flaps are lowered. It can also be adjusted manually.

Retractable type undercarriage. Each unit comprises two oleo legs and a single wheel and is electrically retracted rearwards into the engine nacelle. Electrically operated retractable tail wheel.

Two BMW 802A eighteen-cylinder two-row radial air-cooled engines each rated at 2,560 hp for takeoff and 1,575 hp at 11,800 metres on welded steel-tube mountings at the extremities of the centre-section. Five self-sealing fuel tanks and two oil tanks in the wings between the spars. Carbon-dioxide gas may be released into tank compartments in emergency. VDM four-bladed fully-feathering airscrews.

The crew of three is located in a pressurised cabin forming the forward section of the fuselage. The bomb aimer sits in the forward portion of the cabin, and his position is provided with duplicate controls for the aircraft; the pilot sits in the second position, while the wireless operator air gunner sits behind the pilot. Equipment includes armour, heating and ventilation, oxygen, 24-volt electrical system, wireless, blind approach equipment etc. Defensive armament comprises two 13mm MG131 machineguns with 500 rounds of ammunition per gun in a remote-controlled turret in the rear ventral position. Offensive armament comprises up to 3,300 kg of bombs carried in a single bomb cell.

Span 25.5 metres; Length 18.25 metres; Weight loaded 22,970 kg.

Maximum speed 665 kph at 6,800 metres. Range with 5,280 litres of fuel and bomb load of 3,300 kg 2,600 kilometres at 510 kph. Initial climb rate 493 metres per minute; service ceiling 11,800 metres.


Monday, February 4th 2013, 7:29pm

Focke-Achgelis Fa300 Light Helicopter

Type: Three-seat light helicopter.

Rotor System: Three-blade main rotor. Blades have steel-tube spar, with plastic-bonded plywood covering. Fully-articulated hub with adjustable friction dampers. Main rotor blade area (each) 1.28 sq.m . Main rotor disc area 70 sq.m. Two tail rotors, inclined at 45° to horizontal, at extremities of tail stabilisers. Tail rotor blades of plastic-bonded plywood. Tail rotor disc area (total) 4.3 sq.m.

Rotor Drive: Main rotor drive via two-stage cam-wheel. Tail rotor drive via hollow steel-tube shaft and two bevel-gears. Main rotor/engine rpm ratio 1:10. Tail rotor/engine rpm ratio 1:6.75.

Fuselage: Uncovered steel-tube girder fuselage.

Landing Gear: Tricycle type. Shock-absorption by torsion spring and Borgward hydraulic damper. Wheel track 1.93m. Wheel base 1.80m.

Power Plant: One 260 hp Hirth air-cooled engine. Fuel tank aft of rear fire-wall, with capacity of 180 litres. Oil capacity 15 litres.

Accommodation: Normal seating for two persons. Alternative loads can include pilot with one internal and one external litter casualty, agricultural spraying or dusting equipment, or up to 300 kg of freight slung from an under-fuselage hook.

Technical Data:

Main rotor diameter: 9.40 metres, length of fuselage: 8.30 metres, height to top of main rotor head: 3.05 metres, tail rotor diameter: 1.66 metres.

Weight Empty: 800 kg, weight loaded: 1200 kg.

Maximum speed: 160 kph; cruising speed: 140 kph. Rate of climb at sea level: 240 metres/minute, vertical rate of climb at sea level: 60 metres/minute; Absolute ceiling: 4,500 metres, hovering ceiling: 600 metres, endurance: 3.0 hours.

Design History

Work on the Fa300 began in November 1941 in the wake of the Ivry-sur-Seine gathering of rotary wing designers. Inspired by the paper delivered by Igor Sikorsky Doctor Heinrich Focke and Gern Achgelis began work on a single-rotor design with tail rotors to provide stability. By May 1942 a prototype had been constructed, which, while successful in a technical sense, required considerable improvement before it could be considered a viable alternative to the Flettner Fl282 or to the Focke Achgelis Fa223. Work was further disrupted by the departure from the Focke-Achgelis collective of Raoul Hafner, who chose to continue the collective’s work on twin rotor designs.

In June 1943 the Luftwaffe placed orders for four machines for purposes of evaluation, two of which will be used to evaluate the design’s potential as a search-and-rescue aircraft while the second pair will be tested by the Heer for army-cooperation tasks.


Wednesday, May 29th 2013, 2:09am

Bayerische Flugzeugwerke Bf262A Fighter Aircraft

General characteristics:

Crew: 1
Length: 10.60 m
Wingspan: 12.60 m
Height: 3.50 m
Wing area: 21.7 square metres
Empty weight: 3,795 kg
Loaded weight: 6,473 kg
Maximum takeoff weight: 7,130 kg
Powerplant: Two Junkers Jumo 004 B-1 turbojets, 898 kg thrust each
Aspect ratio: 7.32


Maximum speed: 900 kph
Range: 1,050 km
Service ceiling: 11,450 m
Rate of climb: 1,200 m/min (At max weight of 7,130 kg)


Guns: Four 30 mm MK 108 cannons


Saturday, July 27th 2013, 10:09pm

Bayerischen Flugzeugwerke Bf243 Advanced Training Aircraft

Technical Data

Crew: 2
Length: 8.98 metres
Wingspan: 10.40 metres
Height: 2.90 metres
Wing area: 17.35 square metres
Empty weight: 1,970 kg
Gross weight: 2,930 kg
Fuel capacity: 600 litres
Powerplant: One Bramo 323 Fafnir 9-cylinder radial engine rated at 800 hp

Maximum speed: 444 kph
Cruise speed: 381 kph
Stall speed: 104 kph
Range: 1,323 kilometres
Service ceiling: 10,250 metres
Rate of climb: 10.83 metres/second

Can be fitted with two light machineguns in pods beneath the outer wings and up to four 25 kg bombs for weapons training.


Sunday, March 16th 2014, 7:16pm

Arado 234B Bomber Aircraft

Crew: 1

Length: 12.64 metres
Wingspan 14.41 metres
Height: 4.29 metres
Wing area: 26.4 metres
Empty weight: 5,200 kg
Maximum takeoff weight: 9,800 kg

Powerplant: Two Junkers Jumo 004B Orkan axial-flow turbojet engines each rated at 8.83 kN thrust; Two Walter HWK 109-500A-1 jettisonable RATO pods, each rated at 4.90 kN can be fitted for takeoff

Maximum speed: 742 kph at 6,000 metres
Cruising speed: 700 kph at 6,000 metres
Maximum range (clean): 1,600 kilometres
Maximum range (500 kg ordnance load): 1,400 kilometres
Range with maximum ordnance load (1,500 kg): 1,100 kilometres
Service ceiling: 10,000 metres
Climb to 6,000 metres (with 500 kg load): 12.8 minutes
Climb to 8,000 metres (with 1,500 kg load): 21.6 minutes
Climb to 6,000 metres (with 1,500 kg load): 17.5 minutes
Climb to 8,000 metres (with 1,500 kg load): 34.1 minutes
Initial rate of climb: 13 metres/second

Defensive armament: two fixed aft-firing 20mm cannon with two hundred rounds per gun

Offensive armament: Up to 1,500 kg of ordnance stores on external racks


Saturday, May 31st 2014, 8:43pm

Junkers Ju390C Long-Range Air Transport

A variant of the commercial Ju390B for long-range trooping duties. Passenger windows deleted and a large freight door fitted on port side aft of the wing. Not equipped for paradropping.

Technical Description

Four Brandenburgische Motorenbau 328G eighteen cylinder radial air-cooled engines rated at 2,800 hp for takeoff and 2,500 hp at 7,600 metres

Accommodation for a crew of six, comprising pilot, second pilot, flight engineer and wireless operator, plus two loadmasters. Up to ninety troops can be carried, or twenty-four litter cases plus attendants, or equivalent cargo.

Span 38.3 metres; Length 34.2 metres; Height 8.95 metres. Maximum gross takeoff weight 51,900 kg.

Maximum cruising speed 530 kph at 7,600 metres. Range with maximum fuel 8,000 kilometres; range with maximum payload 5,500 kilometres.


Saturday, May 31st 2014, 10:23pm

Breguet-Nord N.1515 Noratlas Long-Range Air Transport

Developed from the lighter Breguet-Nord N.1510 Normandie, the Noratlas featured a longer fuselage and slightly larger wing. The new aircraft, which first flew in February 1944, was designed to transport a stripped-down light tank or armoured car by air. Fifty examples were ordered by the Luftwaffe in January 1945.

Technical Description

Crew: 6 (pilot, copilot/navigator, radio operator, flight engineer, two loadmasters)
Capacity: 65 paratroopers, 85 troops, or 15,000 kg of cargo
Length: 33 metres
Wingspan: 38.5 metres
Height: 9 metres
Wing Area: 170 square metres
Empty Weight: 25,000 kg
Loaded Weight: 36,620 kg
Max Takeoff Weight: 42,725 kg
Powerplant: 4 × Hispano-Suiza HS-24K TRP-Composé turbo-compound engines, 3,500 hp (2,600 kW) each, with 4-blade adjustable-pitch propellers


Max Speed: 500 kph
Cruise Speed: 400 kph
Range: 5,500 kilometres at 6,000 kg with payload
Service Ceiling: 7,600 metres
Rate of Climb: 7 metres/second
Max Wingloading: 251 kilograms per square metre


Thursday, April 23rd 2015, 5:49pm

Focke Achgelis Fa336 Utility Helicopter

The design of the Fa336 is derived from the Franco-Russian SH.20 Cigale. Early in 1944 the Focke-Achgelis concern acquired a manufacturing licence for the type and began to adapt it to German manufacturing methods and to a nationally-sourced powerplant – a derated variant of the Bramo Fafnir. Development work continued through 1945 and in February 1946 a prototype was sent to the Rechlin test centre for evaluation.

In April 1946 the German Defence Ministry placed initial orders for fifty machines.

General Characteristics

Crew: two (pilot, assistant)
Capacity: up to three passengers, or two medical stretchers, or equivalent cargo
Length: 14.50 metres
Rotor diameter: 15.0 metres
Height: 3.98 metres
Empty weight: 1,720 kg
Maximum takeoff weight: 2,300 kg
Powerplant: one Bramo 323D Fafnir 9 cylinder air cooled radial engine derated to 660 hp


Maximum speed: 170 kph
Range: 440 kilometres
Service ceiling: 3,900 metres

Proposed Variants

Fa336A (Aufklärungshubschrauber) – three-seat variant proposed for the Heer to perform utility and light reconnaissance roles; can be fitted with light machineguns in place of the fuselage doors and carry up to four 25kg bombs

Fa336M (Mehrzweckhubschrauber) – two-seat variant capable of carrying two stretchers for casualty evacuation or up to 300 kg mail, cargo, or other equipment

Fa336R (Rettungshubschrauber) – two-seat variant fitted with a rescue hoist of 250 kg capacity

Fa336U (U-Jagd-Hubschrauber) – two-seat variant proposed for the Kriegsmarine to perform antisubmarine patrol duties; capable of carrying two depth charges

Fa336Z (Zivil) – civil utility version for pilot, up to three passengers, or equivalent cargo


Friday, November 6th 2015, 1:03am

Bayerische Flugzeugwerke Bf329 Interceptor

Development of this aircraft was pursued as a joint Russo-German venture, with Hans Multhopp and Semyon Lavochkin leading the design and development team. The design was begun in 1943 with the intent of producing a fast, high-climbing interceptor; progress was plagued with trouble, with the first prototype disintegrating during a test flight in eastern Germany. Work was then moved to the Lipetsk test station in Russia, where the airframe was redesigned to address structural issues. Further delays were incurred due to lack of power from the intended powerplant – the BMW003, necessitating the switch to the Heinkel HeS011. The revised design made its first successful flight in September 1946, with an expected service introduction sometime in 1947.

General characteristics

Crew: 1
Empty weight: 2,575 kg
Gross weight: 3,850 kg
Fuel capacity: 1,060 litres
Powerplant: One Heinkel HeS011A turbojet, rated at 1,590 kg thrust
Wingspan: 8.83 metres
Length: 9.1 metres
Height: 3.5 metres
Wing Area: 16.16 metres
Empty Weight: 2,575 kg
Loaded Weight: 3,850 kg
Wing Loading: 238.2 kg/sq. metre


Maximum speed: 1,007 kph at 8,000 metres
Range: 1,145 km at 10,000 metres
Endurance: 2 hours
Rate of climb: 31.7 metres/second
Climb to 5,000 metres: 3.1 minutes
Climb to 10,000 metres: 9 minutes
Service ceiling: 13,500 metres


Two 30mm MK108 cannon with 150 rounds per gun


Friday, November 13th 2015, 12:57pm

Bayerische Flugzeugwerke Bf262B Training Aircraft

General characteristics:

Crew: 2
Length: 10.60 m
Wingspan: 12.60 m
Height: 3.50 m
Wing area: 21.7 square metres
Empty weight: 3,795 kg
Loaded weight: 6,660 kg
Maximum takeoff weight: 7,200 kg
Powerplant: Two Junkers Jumo 004 B-1 turbojets, 898 kg thrust each
Aspect ratio: 7.32


Maximum speed: 880 kph
Range: 1,000 km
Service ceiling: 11,450 m
Rate of climb: 1,000 m/min (At max weight of 7,200 kg)


Guns: Can be fitted with two 15mm machineguns in the nose
Hardpoints: Four under-wing for light practice bombs or rockets


Sunday, November 13th 2016, 1:57am

Vereinigte Flugtechnischewerke Vf191 Advanced Training Aircraft

General characteristics

Crew: Two
Length: 8.87 metres
Wingspan: 10.42 metres
Height: 3.26 metres
Wing area: 16.92 m2
Empty weight: 1,677 kg
Gross weight: 2,560 kg
Powerplant: Two Hirth 700 turbojets, 3.9 kN thrust each


Maximum speed: 650 kph at sea level, 700 kph at 7,000 metres
Cruising speed: 600 kph
Range: 1,400 km
Service ceiling: 12,400 metres
Initial rate of climb: 17.7 metres/second
Time to 7,000 metres: 7.6 minutes


Provision for one 7.92mm machinegun in forward fuselage for weapons training
Four underwing hard points for practice munitions


Tuesday, November 15th 2016, 3:02am

Wiener Neustadter Flugzeugwerke Wf14 Utility Helicopter

General characteristics

Crew: 2 pilots
Capacity: 4 passengers
Length: 17.35 metres
Rotor diameter: 10.67 metres
Height: 3.81 metres
Disc area: 179 square metres
Empty weight: 1,782 kg
Loaded weight: 2,608 kg
Maximum takeoff weight: 2,767 kg
Powerplant: One Bramo 322 9-cylinder radial air cooled engine derated to 550 hp


Maximum speed: 169 kph
Range: 547 kilometres
Service ceiling: 3,000 metres
Rate of climb: 5.0 metres/second
Disc loading: 15 kg/square metre


Tuesday, November 29th 2016, 7:16pm

Arado Ar334 Strike Aircraft

Developed from the Arado 234 light bomber, the Ar334B is a strike aircraft capable of day or night operations. A second crew member is carried to handle night navigation and targeting tasks.

Crew: 2
Length: 12.90 metres
Wingspan: 14.60 metres
Height: 4.35 metres
Empty weight: 5,800 kg
Maximum takeoff weight: 10,900 kg

Powerplant: Two Junkers Jumo 004D Orkan axial-flow turbojet engines each rated at 10.3 kN thrust; Two Walter HWK 109-500A-1 jettisonable RATO pods, each rated at 4.90 kN can be fitted for takeoff

Maximum speed: 770 kph at 6,000 metres
Cruising speed: 700 kph at 6,000 metres
Maximum range (clean): 1,600 kilometres
Maximum range (1,000 kg ordnance load): 1,000 kilometres
Range with maximum external load (1,500 kg): 880 kilometres
Service ceiling: 11,000 metres
Climb to 6,000 metres (with 500 kg load): 11.5 minutes
Climb to 6,000 metres (with 1,500 kg load): 17.0 minutes
Climb to 8,000 metres (with 1,500 kg load): 33.5 minutes
Initial rate of climb: 14 metres/second

Offensive armament: Four 20mm cannon in the nose with 200 rounds of ammunition per gun; Up to 1,500 kg of ordnance stores on external racks