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1

Thursday, February 24th 2011, 4:59am

French Submarines

Fleet Submarines

Protee-class Fleet Submarine - 1939
- Protée (Q234)
- Clorinde (Q235)
- Cornélie (Q236)
- Alma (Q237)
- Achille (Q238)
- Actéon (Q239)
- Ajax (Q240)
- Archimède (Q241)
- Argo (Q242)
- Africaine (Q243)
- Astrée (Q244)
- Aurore (Q245)
- Andromède (Q246)
- Antigone (Q247)
- Andromaque (Q248)
- Artémis (Q249)
- Armide (Q250)
- Agosta (Q251)
- Sfax (Q252)
- Casabianca (Q253)
- Caroline (Q254)
- Ouessant (Q255)
- Galétée (Q256)
- Minerve (Q257)

Roland Morillot-class Fleet Submarine - 1943
- Roland Morillot (Q264)
- Charles Drujon (Q265)

Emeraude-class Fleet Submarine - 1945
- Emeraude - laid down in La Rochelle January 1, 1945; completed November 23rd, 1945.
- Opale - laid down in La Rochelle January 1, 1945; completed November 23rd, 1945.
- Rubis - laid down in Brest January 1, 1945; completed November 23rd, 1945.
- Saphir - laid down in Brest January 1, 1945; completed November 23rd, 1945.
- Topase - laid down in Marseilles January 1, 1945; completed November 23rd, 1945.
- Turquoise - laid down in Marseilles January 1, 1945; completed November 23rd, 1945.
- Grenat - laid down in Brest July 1, 1945; completed May 23rd, 1946.
- Agate - laid down in Brest July 1, 1945; completed May 23rd, 1946.
- Améthyste - laid down in Marseilles July 1, 1945; completed May 23rd, 1946.
- Jaspe - laid down in Marseilles July 1, 1945; completed May 23rd, 1946.
- Obsidienne - laid down in Marseilles July 1, 1945; completed May 23rd, 1946.
- Opale - laid down in Marseilles July 1, 1945; completed May 23rd, 1946.

---------------------------------------------------


Coastal Submarines

CS-27-class Coastal Submarine - 1927
- Q186
- Q187
- Q188
- Q189
- Q190
- Q191
- Q192
- Q193
- Q194
- Q195
- Q196
- Q197
- Q198
- Q199

CS-30-class Coastal Submarine - 1930
- Q200
- Q201
- Q202
- Q203
- Q204
- Q205
- Q206
- Q207
- Q208
- Q209

Daphne-class Coastal Submarine - 1939
- Daphné (Q210)
- Diane (Q211)
- Doris (Q212)
- Eurydice (Q213)
- Flore (Q214)
- Junon (Q215)
- Vénus (Q216)
- Sirène (Q217)
- Fresnel (Q218)
- Créole (Q219)
- Bayadère (Q220)
- Favorite (Q221)
- Monge (Q222)
- Henri Poincaré (Q223)
- Pascal (Q224)
- Pasteur (Q225)
- Pégase (Q226)
- Persée (Q227)
- Phénix (Q228)
- Poncelet (Q229)
- Prométhée (Q230)
- Psyché (Q231)
- Hermione (Q232)
- Gorgone (Q233)

Thetis-class Coastal Submarine - 1943
- Thetis (Q258)
- Nymphe (Q259)
- Atalante (Q260)
- Calypso (Q261)
- Naiade (Q262)
- Circé (Q263)

2

Thursday, February 24th 2011, 5:02am

[SIZE=3]Eagle-class, French Fleet Submarine laid down 1920[/SIZE]

Displacement:
1,009 t light; 1,036 t standard; 1,200 t normal; 1,327 t full load
Loading submergence 89 tons/feet

Dimensions:
196.85 ft x 26.25 ft x 17.22 ft (normal load)
60.00 m x 8.00 m x 5.25 m

Armament:
1 - 3.94" / 100 mm guns
1 - 1.57" / 40 mm guns
Weight of broadside 32 lbs / 15 kg
6 - 21.0" / 533 mm submerged torpedo tubes (4 tubes fwd, 2 tubes aft)

Operational depth - 121m/398 ft
Emergency depth - 194m/637 ft
Crush depth - 303m/995 ft

Machinery:
Diesel Internal combustion generators plus batteries,
Electric motors, 1 shaft, 1,786 shp / 1,333 Kw = 15.00 kts
Range 10,000nm at 10.00 kts

Complement:
50 - 66

Cost:
£0.112 million / $0.449 million

Distribution of weights at normal displacement:
Armament: 4 tons, 0.3 %
Machinery: 62 tons, 5.2 %
Hull, fittings & equipment: 742 tons, 61.9 %
Fuel, ammunition & stores: 191 tons, 15.9 %
Miscellaneous weights: 200 tons, 16.7 %

Metacentric height 0.9

Remarks:
Hull space for machinery, storage & compartmentation is excellent
Room for accommodation & workspaces is extremely poor
Ship has quick, lively roll, not a steady gun platform
Caution: Lacks seaworthiness - very limited seakeeping ability

Estimated overall survivability and seakeeping ability:
Relative margin of stability: 1.16
Shellfire needed to sink: 850 lbs / 385 Kg = 27.8 x 3.9 " / 100 mm shells
(Approx weight of penetrating shell hits needed to sink ship excluding critical hits)
Torpedoes needed to sink: 0.3
(Approx number of typical torpedo hits needed to sink ship)

Relative steadiness as gun platform: 0 %
(Average = 50 %)
Relative rocking effect from firing to beam: 0.00
Relative quality as seaboat: 0.00

Hull form characteristics:
Block coefficient: 0.472
Sharpness coefficient: 0.35
Hull speed coefficient 'M': 5.66
'Natural speed' for length: 14.03 kts
Power going to wave formation at top speed: 47 %
Trim: 50
(Maximise stabilty/flotation = 0, Maximise steadiness/seakeeping = 100)

Estimated hull characteristics & strength:
Underwater volume absorbed by magazines and engineering spaces: 76.1 %
Relative accommodation and working space: 0.0 %
(Average = 100%)
Displacement factor: 336 %
(Displacement relative to loading factors)
Relative cross-sectional hull strength: 3.98
(Structure weight / hull surface area: 147 lbs / square foot or 717 Kg / square metre)

Relative longitudinal hull strength: 4.01
(for 0.00 ft / 0.00 m average freeboard, freeboard adjustment -9.91 ft)
Relative composite hull strength: 3.98

Ships in Class:
- Q165
- Q166
- Q167
- Q168
- Q169
- Q170
- Q171
- Q172
- Q173
- Q174
- Q175
- Q176
- Q177
- Q178
- Q179

3

Thursday, February 24th 2011, 5:02am

CS-27 coastal submarine, laid down 1927

Length, 45.5 m x Beam, 6.0 m x Depth, 3.9 m
508 tonnes normal displacement (448 tonnes standard)

Main battery: 1 x 7.5-cm
Secondary battery: 1 x 4.0-cm

Weight of broadside: 7 kg

4 TT, 53.3 cm (submerged)

Hull unarmored

Operational Depth: 388ft/118m
Emergency Depth: 621ft/189m
Crush Depth: 970ft/296m

Maximum speed for 365 shaft kw = 12.00 knots
Approximate cruising radius, 6500 nm / 10 knots

Typical complement: 27-35


Estimated cost, $276,000 (£69,000)

Remarks:

Caution: lacks seaworthiness -- very limited seakeeping ability.

Caution: Very cramped ship with excessively poor habitability;
lacks suitable working space.

Ship has quick, 'lively' roll; not a steady gun platform.


Distribution of weights:
Percent
normal
displacement:

Armament ......................... 2 tonnes = 0 pct
Machinery ........................ 15 tonnes = 3 pct
Hull and fittings; equipment ..... 309 tonnes = 61 pct
Fuel, ammunition, stores ......... 72 tonnes = 14 pct
Miscellaneous weights ............ 110 tonnes = 22 pct
-----
508 tonnes = 100 pct

Estimated metacentric height, 0.1 m

Displacement summary:

Light ship: 436 tonnes
Standard displacement: 448 tonnes
Normal service: 508 tonnes
Full load: 555 tonnes

Loading submergence 166 tonnes/metre

+++++++++++++++++++++++++


Estimated overall survivability and seakeeping ability:

Relative margin of stability: 1.04

Shellfire needed to sink: 125 kg = 21.3 x 7.5-cm shells
(Approximates weight of penetrating
shell hits needed to sink ship,
not counting critical hits)

Torpedoes needed to sink: 0.1
(Approximates number of 'typical'
torpedo hits needed to sink ship)

Relative steadiness as gun platform, 1 percent
(50 percent is 'average')

Relative rocking effect from firing to beam, 0.00

Relative quality as a seaboat: 0.00

+++++++++++++++++++++++++


Hull form characteristics:

Block coefficient: 0.47
Sharpness coefficient: 0.35
Hull speed coefficient 'M' = 5.71
'Natural speed' for length = 12.2 knots
Power going to wave formation
at top speed: 42 percent


Estimated hull characteristics and strength:

Relative underwater volume absorbed by
magazines and engineering spaces: 95 percent

Relative accommodation and working space: 1 percent


Displacement factor: 327 percent
(Displacement relative to loading factors)


Relative cross-sectional hull strength: 3.88
(Structure weight per square
metre of hull surface: 526 kg)

Relative longitudinal hull strength: 3.89
(for 0.03 m average freeboard;
freeboard adjustment -2.51 m)

Relative composite hull strength: 3.88

+++++++++++++++++++++++++


[Machine-readable parameters: Spring Style v. 1.2.1]

149.24 x 19.68 x 12.89; 0.10 -- Dimensions
0.47 -- Block coefficient
1927 -- Year laid down
12.00 / 6500 / 10.00; Oil-fired turbine or equivalent -- Speed / radius / cruise
110 tons -- Miscellaneous weights
++++++++++
1 x 2.95; 0 -- Main battery; turrets
Central positioning of guns
:
1 x 1.57; 0 -- Secondary battery; turrets
:
0 -- No tertiary (QF/AA) battery
0 -- No fourth (light) battery
4 / 4 / 20.98 -- TT / submerged / size
++++++++++
0.00 -- No belt armor
0.00 / 0.00 -- Deck / CT
0.00 -- No battery armor


(Note: For portability, values are stored in Anglo-American units)


+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

Quoted

CS27, French Submarine laid down 1927

Displacement:
437 t light; 448 t standard; 508 t normal; 556 t full load

Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught
149.28 ft / 149.28 ft x 19.69 ft x 9.84 ft (normal load)
45.50 m / 45.50 m x 6.00 m x 3.00 m

Armament:
1 - 2.95" / 75.0 mm guns in single mounts, 12.87lbs / 5.84kg shells, 1927 Model
Quick firing gun in deck mount
on centreline forward
1 - 1.57" / 40.0 mm guns in single mounts, 1.95lbs / 0.89kg shells, 1927 Model
Anti-aircraft gun in deck mount
on centreline aft
Weight of broadside 15 lbs / 7 kg
Shells per gun, main battery: 150
4 - 21.7" / 550 mm above water torpedoes

Machinery:
Diesel Internal combustion generators plus batteries,
Electric motors, 1 shaft, 497 shp / 370 Kw = 12.00 kts
Range 6,500nm at 10.00 kts
Bunker at max displacement = 108 tons

Complement:
53 - 69

Cost:
£0.069 million / $0.277 million

Distribution of weights at normal displacement:
Armament: 2 tons, 0.4 %
Machinery: 16 tons, 3.1 %
Hull, fittings & equipment: 309 tons, 60.9 %
Fuel, ammunition & stores: 71 tons, 14.0 %
Miscellaneous weights: 110 tons, 21.7 %

Overall survivability and seakeeping ability:
Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship):
740 lbs / 336 Kg = 57.5 x 3.0 " / 75 mm shells or 1.1 torpedoes
Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.21
Metacentric height 0.6 ft / 0.2 m
Roll period: 10.5 seconds
Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 0 %
- Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.00
Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 0.00

Hull form characteristics:
Hull has a flush deck
Block coefficient: 0.615
Length to Beam Ratio: 7.58 : 1
'Natural speed' for length: 12.22 kts
Power going to wave formation at top speed: 47 %
Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50
Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 0.00 degrees
Stern overhang: 0.00 ft / 0.00 m
Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length):
- Stem: 0.00 ft / 0.00 m
- Forecastle (20 %): 0.00 ft / 0.00 m
- Mid (50 %): 0.00 ft / 0.00 m
- Quarterdeck (15 %): 0.00 ft / 0.00 m
- Stern: 0.00 ft / 0.00 m
- Average freeboard: 0.00 ft / 0.00 m
Ship tends to be wet forward

Ship space, strength and comments:
Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 37.8 %
- Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 0.0 %
Waterplane Area: 2,137 Square feet or 198 Square metres
Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 325 %
Structure weight / hull surface area: 108 lbs/sq ft or 525 Kg/sq metre
Hull strength (Relative):
- Cross-sectional: 4.52
- Longitudinal: 2.25
- Overall: 2.68
Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is excellent
Room for accommodation and workspaces is extremely poor
Ship has quick, lively roll, not a steady gun platform
Caution: Lacks seaworthiness - very limited seakeeping ability


Ships in Class:
- Q180 (retired Q1/1944)
- Q181 (retired Q2/1944)
- Q182 (retired Q3/1944)
- Q183 (retired Q4/1944)
- Q184 (retired Q1/1945)
- Q185 (retired Q2/1945)
- Q186
- Q187
- Q188
- Q189
- Q190
- Q191
- Q192
- Q193
- Q194
- Q195
- Q196
- Q197
- Q198
- Q199

4

Thursday, February 24th 2011, 5:02am

CS-1930, French Submarine laid down 1930

Displacement:
406 t light; 419 t standard; 527 t normal; 614 t full load

Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught
149.28 ft / 149.28 ft x 20.34 ft x 12.80 ft (normal load)
45.50 m / 45.50 m x 6.20 m x 3.90 m

Armament:
1 - 2.95" / 75.0 mm guns in single mounts, 12.87lbs / 5.84kg shells, 1930 Model
Breech loading gun in deck mount
on centreline forward
1 - 1.57" / 40.0 mm guns in single mounts, 1.95lbs / 0.89kg shells, 1930 Model
Breech loading gun in deck mount
on centreline aft
Weight of broadside 15 lbs / 7 kg
Shells per gun, main battery: 250
6 - 21.7" / 550 mm submerged torpedo tubes

Armour:
- Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max)
Main: 0.98" / 25 mm 0.20" / 5 mm -
2nd: 0.98" / 25 mm 0.20" / 5 mm -

- Conning tower: 0.98" / 25 mm

Machinery:
Diesel Internal combustion generators plus batteries,
Electric motors, 2 shafts, 2,512 shp / 1,874 Kw = 18.00 kts
Range 12,100nm at 10.00 kts
Bunker at max displacement = 195 tons

Complement:
27 - 35

Cost:
£0.111 million / $0.442 million

Distribution of weights at normal displacement:
Armament: 2 tons, 0.4 %
Armour: 3 tons, 0.5 %
- Belts: 0 tons, 0.0 %
- Torpedo bulkhead: 0 tons, 0.0 %
- Armament: 1 tons, 0.3 %
- Armour Deck: 0 tons, 0.0 %
- Conning Tower: 1 tons, 0.3 %
Machinery: 76 tons, 14.4 %
Hull, fittings & equipment: 215 tons, 40.8 %
Fuel, ammunition & stores: 121 tons, 23.0 %
Miscellaneous weights: 110 tons, 20.9 %

Overall survivability and seakeeping ability:
Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship):
10 lbs / 5 Kg = 0.8 x 3.0 " / 75 mm shells or 0.0 torpedoes
Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.01
Metacentric height 0.5 ft / 0.1 m
Roll period: 12.5 seconds
Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 0 %
- Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.00
Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 0.00

Hull form characteristics:
Hull has a flush deck
Block coefficient: 0.475
Length to Beam Ratio: 7.34 : 1
'Natural speed' for length: 12.22 kts
Power going to wave formation at top speed: 64 %
Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50
Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 0.00 degrees
Stern overhang: 0.00 ft / 0.00 m
Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length):
- Stem: 0.00 ft / 0.00 m
- Forecastle (20 %): 0.00 ft / 0.00 m
- Mid (50 %): 0.00 ft / 0.00 m
- Quarterdeck (15 %): 0.00 ft / 0.00 m
- Stern: 0.00 ft / 0.00 m
- Average freeboard: 0.00 ft / 0.00 m
Ship tends to be wet forward

Ship space, strength and comments:
Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 507.7 %
- Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 0.0 %
Waterplane Area: 1,978 Square feet or 184 Square metres
Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 188 %
Structure weight / hull surface area: 72 lbs/sq ft or 353 Kg/sq metre
Hull strength (Relative):
- Cross-sectional: 2.53
- Longitudinal: 2.49
- Overall: 2.50
Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is extremely poor
Room for accommodation and workspaces is extremely poor
Ship has quick, lively roll, not a steady gun platform
Caution: Lacks seaworthiness - very limited seakeeping ability

Operational depth - 250 ft/ 76m
Emergency depth - 400 ft/ 122m
Crush depth - 625 ft/ 191m

Ships in Class:
- Q200
- Q201
- Q202
- Q203
- Q204
- Q205
- Q206
- Q207
- Q208
- Q209

5

Thursday, February 24th 2011, 5:04am

Daphne-class Submarine

Date: 1939
Coastal
Armament 1x100mm
ElecHP: 1600hp
DieselHP: 2800hp
Crew: 40
wt fuel&batts: 320t
Light Displacement 600t
Loaded Displacement 760t
Full Displacement 1022t
Reserve buoyancy: 26%
Max Surf Speed: 15.3 knots
Max Sub Speed: 9.2 knots

Length: 57.8m
Beam: 6.7m
Draft: 5.3m
Crush depth: 250m
#TT 8 x 550mm (6 bow, 2 stern, 14 reloads)
Tons Oil: 160.0t
Tons Battery: 160.0t
Cruise speed: 12 knots
Submerged speed: 6 knots

Surface Range: 7065nm@12 knots
Submerged Range: 57nm@6 knots

Notes: 11t misc weight. 9 tons for hydrophones, 2 tons for other gear

Units in Class:
- Daphné (Q210)
- Diane (Q211)
- Doris (Q212)
- Eurydice (Q213)
- Flore (Q214)
- Junon (Q215)
- Vénus (Q216)
- Sirène (Q217)
- Fresnel (Q218)
- Créole (Q219)
- Bayadère (Q220)
- Favorite (Q221)
- Monge (Q222)
- Henri Poincaré (Q223)
- Pascal (Q224)
- Pasteur (Q225)
- Pégase (Q226)
- Persée (Q227)
- Phénix (Q228)
- Poncelet (Q229)
- Prométhée (Q230)
- Psyché (Q231)
- Hermione (Q232)
- Gorgone (Q233)

6

Thursday, February 24th 2011, 5:04am

Protée-class Submarine

Date: 1939
Ocean
Armament 1x 100mm
ElecHP: 3400hp
DieselHP: 5600hp
Crew: 69
wt fuel&batts: 550t
Light Displacement 1166t
Loaded Displacement 1441t
Full Displacement 1673t
Reserve buoyancy: 14%
Max Surf Speed: 18 knots
Max Sub Speed: 10.6 knots

Length: 77.0m
Beam: 8.2m
Draft: 5.3m
Crush depth: 250m
#TT 6 x 550mm (6 bow, 18 reloads)
Tons Oil: 275.0t
Tons Battery: 275.0t
Cruise speed: 12 knots
Submerged speed: 6 knots

Surface Range: 9887nm@12 knots
Submerged Range: 74nm@6 knots

Notes: 18t misc weight. 9 tons for hydrophones, 9 tons for rostrum (snort). In 1943, all ships refitted to carry DRBC-6C detecteur electro-magnetique.

Units in Class:
- Protée (Q234)
- Clorinde (Q235)
- Cornélie (Q236)
- Alma (Q237)
- Achille (Q238)
- Actéon (Q239)
- Ajax (Q240)
- Archimède (Q241)
- Argo (Q242)
- Africaine (Q243)
- Astrée (Q244)
- Aurore (Q245)
- Andromède (Q246)
- Antigone (Q247)
- Andromaque (Q248)
- Artémis (Q249)
- Armide (Q250)
- Agosta (Q251)
- Sfax (Q252)
- Casabianca (Q253)
- Caroline (Q254)
- Ouessant (Q255)
- Galétée (Q256)
- Minerve (Q257)

7

Sunday, November 4th 2012, 1:35am

Thetis (Improved Daphne)-class Submarine

Date: 1943
Coastal
Armament: 1x75mm, 4x23mm
ElecHP: 1600hp
DieselHP: 2800hp
CREW: 36
wt fuel&batts: 360t
Light Displacement 675t
Loaded Displacement 849t
Full Displacement 1026t
Reserve buoyancy: 17%
Max Surf Speed: 15.3 knots
Max Sub Speed: 9.2 knots

Length: 57.8m
Beam: 6.7m
Draft: 5.3m
Crush depth: 212.5m
Armament: 1x75mm
#TT: 8 x 533mm (bow)
Mines: 14 tons (reload torpedoes simmed as mines)
Tons Oil: 160.0t
Tons Battery: 200.0t
Miscellaneous Weight: 43 tons
Notes: 43t misc weight. 9 tons for hydrophones, 9 tons for rostrum (snort), 2 tons for RTD, 23 tons unspecified

Surface Range: 7040nm@12 knots
Submerged Range: 73nm@6 knots / 22nm@9 knots

Units in Class:
- Thetis (Q258): Laid down at La Rochelle January 1943, completed November 1943.
- Nymphe (Q259): Laid down at La Rochelle April 1943, completed February 1944.
- Atalante (Q260): Laid down at La Rochelle July 1943, completed May 1944.
- Calypso (Q261): Laid down at La Rochelle October 1943, completed August 1944.
- Naiade (Q262): Laid down at La Rochelle January 1944, completed November 1944.
- Circé (Q263): Laid down at La Rochelle April 1944, completed February 1945.

8

Monday, March 11th 2013, 5:48am

Roland Morillot-class Submarine
Date: 1943
Type: Oceanic
Length: 90.0m
Beam: 8.7m
Draft: 5.2m
Crush depth: 300m
Light Displacement 1450t
Loaded Displacement 1724t
Full Displacement 2036t
wt fuel&batts: 600t
Reserve buoyancy: 15%

Armament:
- 1 x 100mm deck gun
- 2 x 40mm AA guns
- 2 x 15mm machine guns
- 8 x 550mm torpedo tubes (six bow, two stern)
- 24 tons for mines or reload torpedoes
ElecHP: 3200hp
DieselHP: 6900hp
Speed:
- Max Surf Speed: 19 knots
- Max Sub Speed: 9.9 knots
Range:
- Surfaced: 8635nm@12 knots
- Submerged: 82nm@6 knots / 25nm@9 knots
Tons Oil: 250.0t
Tons Battery: 350.0t
Miscellaneous Weight: 49 tons
- 5 tons for twin 40mm gun
- 1 ton for 15mm machine guns
- 9 tons for rostrum (snort) and systems
- 10 tons for hydrophones and electronics
- 24 tons for miscellaneous gear, stores, and systems

Crew: 62

Units in Class:
- Roland Morillot (Q264): Laid down at La Rochelle July 1943, completed May 1944.
- Charles Drujon (Q265): Laid down at La Rochelle July 1943, completed May 1944.

9

Saturday, December 21st 2013, 5:35pm

Gymnote-class Experimental Submarine
The Gymnote was designed and constructed to test H2O2 propulsion systems. The submarine's hull was designed to achieve high underwater speeds made possible by the propulsion system. H2O2 propulsion was not considered a success (the boat was nicknamed "Allume-cigare" or "Cigarette Lighter" due to its regular onboard fires) and the Gymnote's career was short. It was never formally accepted into the French Navy as a warship, and as a result never received an official hull number painted on the sail.

Date: 1944
Type: Coastal
Length: 55.0m
Beam: 5m
Draft: 4.5m
Crush depth: 212.5m
Light Displacement 375t
Loaded Displacement 506t
Full Displacement 619t
wt fuel&batts: 125t
Reserve buoyancy: 18%

Armament:
- 2 x 550mm torpedo tubes
- 6 tons for mines or reload torpedoes
ElecHP: 0hp
DieselHP: 1200hp
H2O2HP: 6800hp
Speed:
- Max Surf Speed: 13.4 knots
- Max Sub Speed: 16.6 knots
Range:
- Surfaced: 5000nm@10 knots
- Submerged: 813nm@6 knots / 457nm@8 knots
Tons Oil: 50.0t
Tons Battery: 0.0t
Tons H2O2: 75.0t
Miscellaneous Weight: 49 tons
- 9 tons for rostrum (snort) and systems
- 10 tons for hydrophones and electronics
- 34 tons for miscellaneous gear, stores, and testing systems

Crew: 30

Ships in Class:
- Gymnote: Laid down July 1944, completed December 1944.

10

Thursday, June 5th 2014, 12:50am



Emeraude-class Submarine
Date: 1945
Type: Oceanic
Length: 90.0m
Beam: 9.0m
Draft: 6.0m
Crush depth: 212.5m
Light Displacement 1750t
Loaded Displacement 2057t
Full Displacement 2430t
wt fuel&batts: 625t
Reserve buoyancy: 15%

Armament:
- 8 x 550mm (bow)
- 32 tons for mines or reload torpedoes
ElecHP: 6600hp
DieselHP: 6000hp
Speed:
- Max Surf Speed: 17.6 knots
- Max Sub Speed: 17.2 knots
Range:
- Surfaced: 8864nm@12 knots
- Submerged: 235nm@6 knots / 37nm@12 knots
Tons Oil: 275.0t
Tons Battery: 350.0t
Miscellaneous Weight: 47 tons

Crew: 67

Units in Class:
- Emeraude - laid down in La Rochelle January 1, 1945; completed November 23rd, 1945.
- Opale - laid down in La Rochelle January 1, 1945; completed November 23rd, 1945.
- Rubis - laid down in Brest January 1, 1945; completed November 23rd, 1945.
- Saphir - laid down in Brest January 1, 1945; completed November 23rd, 1945.
- Topase - laid down in Marseilles January 1, 1945; completed November 23rd, 1945.
- Turquoise - laid down in Marseilles January 1, 1945; completed November 23rd, 1945.
- Grenat - laid down in Brest July 1, 1945; completed May 23rd, 1946.
- Agate - laid down in Brest July 1, 1945; completed May 23rd, 1946.
- Améthyste - laid down in Marseilles July 1, 1945; completed May 23rd, 1946.
- Jaspe - laid down in Marseilles July 1, 1945; completed May 23rd, 1946.
- Obsidienne - laid down in Marseilles July 1, 1945; completed May 23rd, 1946.
- Perle - laid down in Marseilles July 1, 1945; completed May 23rd, 1946.

Notes:
Rubis and Turquoise were constructed with hydraulic valves, activated remotely from the control room, for trimming ballast. This was done for experimental purposes, and was adopted for most French submarine construction thereafter.

11

Thursday, September 21st 2017, 3:19pm

Maxime Laubeuf class Submarine
Date: 1948
Type: Coastal
Length: 55.0m
Beam: 4.9m
Draft: 5.0m
Crush depth: 225m
Light Displacement 420t
Loaded Displacement 567t
Full Displacement 674t
wt fuel&batts: 135t
Reserve buoyancy: 16%

Armament:
- 4 x 550mm torpedo tubes (all bow tubes, 2 reloads per tube @ 2t each)
DieselHP: 900hp
H2O2HP: 6,800hp
Speed:
- Max Surf Speed: 12.2 knots
- Max Sub Speed: 23.1 knots
Range:
- Surfaced: 4000nm@10 knots
- Submerged: 1272nm@10 knots / 3535nm@6 knots
Tons Oil: 40.0t
Tons H2O2: 95.0t
Miscellaneous Weight: 32 tons
- 4 tons for snort
- 8 tons for electronics
- 20 tons for other

Electronics:
- 2 tons for DRBV-6C surface and air search radar
- 1 ton for ARBR-1L radar warning receiver
- 2 tons for primary G-15 active hydrophone
- 3 tons for two G-13 passive hydrophones

Crew: 29

Units in Class:
- Maxime Laubeuf (S278): laid down 1948.

Notes:
The Maxime Laubeuf was an experimental submarine built in 1948 as part of Project Borée, a joint project by the French Marine Nationale and the Russian Federation Navy to develop an air-independent submarine propulsion system. The Maxime Laubeuf, often better-known by the nickname "Max Rapide" (Max Quick) was a highly modified variant of the earlier hydrogen peroxide-powered Gymnote. Although built as a fully-capable military submarine, the "Max" was intended to be a half-scale testbed for a 1950 production design, powered by a nuclear reactor.

The Marine Nationale had originally wanted to try the Russian REDO closed-cycle stirling diesel engine (tested on the Russian M-401 experimental submarine) rather than resorting back to H2O2; but a workable design could not be assembled according to the project timetable. As a result, the "Max" had a modified version of the Gymnote's H2O2 engines, which benefitted from many of the lessons learned from the fire-prone Gymnote. In spite of the improvements, fires were semi-regular occurances, leading to the final abandonment of the H2O2 design program.

The Maxime Laubeuf's greatest contributions came with regard to her Lyon shape hullform, which adapted lessons learned from aerodynamics. DCNS had also learned many lessons during construction of the Emeraude-class regarding improved underwater streamlining and performance, as well as the design of control surfaces. The hullform had previously been used in a crude form on the Gymnote, although the earlier submarine had not benefitted from the same degree of streamlining, or the elimination of external fittings and fixtures. It was this experience which proved most valuable for Project Borée, eventually bearing fruit with the design of the first French nuclear submarines, Revolutionnaire.

In 1953, the French Navy retired the submarine following a second major fire. The boat, which was returning from a training cruise to Algiers, caught fire while waiting for a tug. The boat took on water through the open aft hatch and sank in sixteen meters of water, less than a hundred meters from her home pier. Fifteen men abandoned ship prior to her sinking, while the remaining fourteen men, gathered in the forward compartment, were rescued less than an hour later by diving bell. Divers closed the aft hatch and pumped high-pressure air into the boat to raise it. Due to the damage to the H2O2 engine system and a disinterest in continuing experiments with hydrogen peroxide, the "Max" was not deemed economical to repair.

Accident History:
- June 12, 1948: minor fire started by the H2O2 system during sea trials. No casualties or damage.
- June 19, 1948: minor fire started by the H2O2 system during sea trials. No significant damage; one man treated for inhalation of fumes.
- July 30, 1948: minor fire started by the H2O2 system while at sea. No casualties or damage; cruise continued without interruption.
- November 5, 1948: minor fire started by the H2O2 system while in port. No casualties or damage.
- March 13, 1949: major fire started by the H2O2 system. Three dead, fourteen injured. Boat briefly abandoned at sea before being towed to Mers-el-Kebir then returned to France for repairs.
- April 4, 1949: while finishing repairs following fire, a crane knocks over material onto the submarine, damaging the snort, periscope and radar mast, and causing an impact which starts a minor electrical fire in the captain's cabin. No casualties; minor damage.
- July 13, 1949: entangled in a lost fishing trawl. Screw jammed, boat towed back to port.
- May 19, 1950: minor fire started by the H2O2 system while at sea. No casualties or damage; cruise terminated.
- November 16, 1950: minor fire started by the H2O2 system. No significant damage; three men treated for inhalation of fumes.
- December 18, 1950: while leaving port, submarine rammed by civilian motorboat (security violation). Motorboat sunk and two civilians arrested. No damage to the submarine.
- March 9, 1951: minor fire started by the H2O2 system. No significant damage; one man treated for inhalation of fumes.
- August 18, 1952: minor fire started by the H2O2 system while at sea. No casualties or damage; cruise continued without interruption.
- April 11, 1953: major fire started by the H2O2 system while in port of Toulon. Eighteen men treated for inhalation of fumes. Boat sinks in port in sixteen meters of water.