You are not logged in.

Dear visitor, welcome to WesWorld. If this is your first visit here, please read the Help. It explains in detail how this page works. To use all features of this page, you should consider registering. Please use the registration form, to register here or read more information about the registration process. If you are already registered, please login here.

1

Monday, September 25th 2017, 5:55pm

Meanwhile, in Russia: 1948

Modernization of the Caspian Flotilla
January - The VMF Rossii has accelerated a program to modernize the Caspian Flotilla with the order of five Makhachkala-class coastguard patrol ships, a patrol-oriented variant of the Project 83 "Avantyurin" class small antisubmarine ships. Five vessels of this modified class, named for cities in the southern Caspian region, have been laid down at the beginning of this month. The Russian Foreign Ministry has advised the governments of Persia and Azerbaijan, who also possess coastline on the Caspian Sea, that the five new ships will replace ten more antiquated vessels of the Lilya class currently deployed in Baku with the 14th Corvette Flotilla.

Ivanovski-Layevska Gang Terrorizes Cherkassy
February - The Ivanovski-Layevska Gang, led by bandit Oleksandr Ivanovski and Nataliia Layevska, continues to stage robberies in the region of Ukraine, with fourteen crimes in the region of Cherkassy over the months of December and early January. The gang has apparently chosen to target some of the relatively few privately-owned banks operating in the city, principally the Sberbank Ukrainy (Ukrainian Savings Bank), which is privately owned, staging five different robberies on all three different branch locations within the city. In the fifth robbery, Nataliia Layevska allegedly shot and seriously wounded two armed guards hired to protect the bank, and the gang took a nineteen-year old teller, Anna Katzir, hostage in order to escape from police. Ms. Katzir is the second known kidnap victim of the gang, and remains missing as of the fifth of February.

Although the Ivanovski-Layevska Gang began operations in the regional capital of Kiev last year, sometime in December they apparently moved their operations down the Dnieper to Cherkassy. It is believed that they had a close encounter with Kiev police in November, and moved to Cherkassy as a result. The newly-formed Federal Security Service requested the regional authorities for permission to become involved, which so far has not been granted.

Chinese Confront Russia in Bering Strait
February - The Russian Federation government has announced that a military confrontation has occurred in the Bering Strait between Russian Federation naval and coastal defenses and a Chinese warship. A heavily-armed Chinese icebreaker, the Zhuhai, was sent by Beijing to reconnoiter the Arctic in preparation for further expeditions, including alleged commercial exploitation and an attempt to intrude upon the Northern Sea Route.

According to sources in Petrograd, Russian military forces urgently requested the Chinese warship to turn around as it passed into the Russian security zone in the Bering Strait, defended by coastal batteries on Ostrov Ratmanova (also known as Big Diomede Island), which fired several warning shots. Although initially stopping in response to the warning shots, the icebreaker moved into the waters on the American side of the strait, and attempted to finish transiting to the Arctic Ocean. The Russian cruiser Admiral Senyavin and the American icebreaker-guardship Bear, under threat of force, then escorted the Chinese warship back south, where it is now believed to be returning to Chinese waters.

The incident marks an extremely serious Chinese affront to the Russian Federation, which, at the moment, is one of the few neighboring powers that retains normal diplomatic and economic relations with Beijing. President Fyodorov and Chairman of the Government Sergeyev both, however, advised caution and indicated that every diplomatic effort would be made to bring relations with China back to a solid footing.

Chinese Expel Russian Ambassador
February - In the aftermath of the Bering Straits Incident of February 5th, the Chinese prime minister expelled Grigori Adamov, the senior Russian diplomat to Beijing, declaring him persona non grata. According to the Russian Foreign Ministry, Ambassador Adamov attempted to leave after having received the prime minister's statement, and delivering a Russian response. The Chinese prime minister took affront at the Russian government's request for caution and restraint, and attempted to bully Adamov with insulting language, attempting to force him to overstep his instructions from the President and the Foreign Ministry. Having no success at baiting Ambassador Adamov into an argument, the prime minister ordered Adamov ejected from China.

In a public statement, Peterhof declared that the President found Ambassador Adamov's behavior as 'highly satisfactory' and criticized the Chinese government's "poor foresight" in ejecting an ambassador who could help negotiate a conclusion to an ongoing crisis.

Responding to questions from reporters, the government's spokesman stated that the Russian Federation would not retaliate for Ambassador Adamov's ejection by similarly ejecting Chinese Ambassador Jhijun Lin from Russia. "Unlike the Chinese, we do not feel expelling ambassadors is a profitable or wise move to respond to a crisis."

Cam Ranh Bay Security Breach
February - Locals discovered the severed leg of a commando frogman who is believed to have attempted to infiltrate the Russian and French naval anchorage in Cam Ranh Bay, Indochina. The Russian base commandant was informed of the discovery by local police officials. The VMF Rossii has reacted strongly to the infiltration, asking the Indochinese Patrouille Navale, responsible for coastal security, to increase security around the port. A joint investigation has been launched.

Army Hunts Wolves in Vyatka
March - Troops of the 191st Rifle Division have been called out to conduct a major sweep of the Darovskoy Raion in the Vyatka Oblast following a series of attacks by wolves in that region. It is believed a harsh winter has caused the wolves to move out of the wilderness toward human-occupied regions, where they have attacked and killed an unknown number of children and lone adults, particularly those living outside towns and villages.

Synthetic Rubber Production Meets National Goals
March - According to figures published this month by the Ministry of Labour, the production of synthetic rubber within the Russian Federation surpassed half a million tons annual capacity in 1947, sufficient to completely satisfy not only the Federation's own internal market, but also export to friendly nations. Once, the rubber cartels of the west laughed at the daydream of Sergei Lebedev of producing tyres from potatoes or oil, but now, Russian industry can pursue its course without fear of supply disruptions. The Russian Federation continues to be a world leader in developing cheaper and less labor or material-intensive methods for synthetic rubber production.

Preparations for 1948 Militariad
March - Final preparations are underway for the 1948 Militariad, the second repetition of this contest to be hosted by Russia. The Militariad will be held during the months of April and May at locations around the Russian Federation.

New Agency Formed
April - The 3rd Special Bureau of the Military-Industrial Commission has been reformed into the Rossiyskoe aviatsionno-kosmicheskoe agentstvo (Russian Aviation and Cosmic Agency) with the goal of overseeing centralized planning for Russian high-altitude rocketry endeavors. The agency, which will be headed by its new director Pavlov Polzin, will report to the Chairman of the Government of the Russian Federation.

Gang Survives Brush With Army
April - Ukrainian bandits Oleksandr Ivanovski and Nataliia Layevska both survived an unexpected shootout with a Russian Army unit just outside the city of Kremenchuk. The gang had apparently left behind Cherkassy where they had staged sixteen bank robberies over the last three months, and had apparently fled the increasingly intense scrutiny of police. The six members of the gang, travelling in two cars, took a ferry across the Dniepr River near Kremenchuk, boarding the ferry just before four Cossack soldiers, part of a local army unit, came aboard with their truck. One of the Cossacks noticed and recognized the gang's hostage, kidnapped Cherkassy bank teller Anna Katzir, and offered her a cigarette in an attempt to confirm her identity. Layevska, the closest gang member, began shouting at the soldier, and a struggle developed between the Cossacks and the six bandits, who opened up with illicit submachine guns. Two soldiers were killed and the other two injured during the gunfight. The Cossack soldier who had first noticed Ms. Katzir survived, despite suffering thirty-one bullet wounds, and reportedly shot three gang-members including Nataliia Layevska herself, although it is believed that none of the gang were killed. Twelve other bystanders were injured, two seriously, and the gang took a second hostage, identified only as a twelve-year old boy.

In response to the gunfight, the government of the Ukrainian Federation Republic took the unprecedented step of tripling the monetary reward for information leading to the arrest of the gang members.

Petrograd Affirmation
April - In the political aftermath of the Danish Straits Incident, the Russian Federation government has issued a notice dubbed 'the Petrograd Affirmation' to the Kingdom of Denmark, voluntarily declaring that Russian submarines will not attempt a submerged or covert passage of the Danish Belts, and will endeavor to provide the Danish Ministry of Defense with twenty-four hours notice, insofar as practicable, whenever a Russian warship intends to transit any of the Danish straits.

Presidential Address to Duma
May - In an open letter to the Duma, President Fyodorov declared that his program of electricity deregulation has been a resounding success. Citing three different studies commissioned by various different parties, Fyodorov indicated the amount of wasted electricity has dropped nearly 30% across the entire Federation, while the number and severity of blackouts has decreased by a like figure.

Fyodorov additionally responded to Duma questions about international affairs. Relations with the Baltic States, particularly Latvia and Lithuania, continue to improve, particularly with the announcement that Lithuanian President Kazys Grinius will step down at the end of 1948, restarting a more free democratic process. Fyodorov indicated that the Russian Federation's position on the Treaty of Stockholm, where Lithuania surrendered territory and trade concessions to Germany, has not changed. Since the death of the seventh Bogd Khan in 1947, the Mongolian government continues to undergo an extended interregnum, with Khasbazar Ochirbat, the close friend and personal secretary of the deceased Bogd Khan, continuing to exercise the reins of state. With regard to the recent British violation of Danish territorial waters, Fyodorov expressed his opinion that the event was a 'lamentable lapse of judgment' but did not pose any serious tactical, operational, or strategic challenges to either the Russian Federation or the German state. Fyodorov noted that the government's recent notice to Copenhagen, the so-called Petrograd Confirmation, represents a Russian attempt to lead by example in showing respect for Danish general neutrality.

Morskoi Sbornik: Naval Jets in Sea Service
May - The glorious Marine-Maritime Fleet of the Russian Federation has announced that in the current training exercise of the Northern Fleet, code-named Rubin-2, new turbojet powered aircraft have been deployed for the first time on an operational basis at sea! The Sukhoi Su-7 and Alekseyev I-212 fighters, products of the devoted workers and talented academicians of our industrious motherland, are among the very first ship-based turbojet aircraft to enter sea service anywhere in the world, proving to all that the Russian Federation stands ready to defend itself against any foolish power wishing to disturb the tranquility of our peaceful and enlightened age!

1948 Militariad Completed
May - The second 'Militariad', an international event which has grown out of the Russian Ground Forces' internal readiness competitions, has completed. Disappointingly, Russia itself only received one gold medal out of the thirteen categories, but received three silver and three bronze medals. (See separate report.)

Ukrainian FR: "Ivanovski-Layevska Gang Terminated"
June - Police officials in the Ukrainian Federation Republic announced that all eight members of the Ivanovski-Layevska Gang, which robbed dozens of banks in Kiev and Cherkassy, finally met their end on June 18th in the city of Poltava. The gang had apparently decided to take refuge with a gang-member's family member on the outskirts of Poltava. However, the relative instead approached the Ukrainian police, who narrowly missed surrounding the gang at their new hideout. Alerted to the police presence, the gang scattered and attempted to flee, forcing their hostage, Anna Katzir, to drive one of their three cars. Instead of doing so, she crashed it into one of the gang's other cars, immobilizing both, near the Monument at the Grave Ivan Kotliarevsky. The third car, undamaged, raced away, pursued by two police motorcycles. However the driver eventually lost control of the car, causing it to roll into a cemetary. Two of the three occupants were thrown from the car, one being crushed underneath it. The two surviving gang members continued resisting arrest, and were shot down when they drew guns to fight the pursuing police.

Eight Ukrainian policemen and two Cossack cavalrymen belonging to a so-called "unit of special designation" engaged the gang members in a gunfight that lasted less than fifteen minutes. Two gang members were killed in the opening seconds of the gunfight. Gang leader Oleksandr Ivanovski was killed by Russian police sharpshooter Lavrentiy Volkov, while Nataliia Layevska, armed with a light machine gun stolen from a group of Cossacks the gang had killed in April, held off the police until she had expended all of her ammunition. She fled, briefly outrunning police until she was chased down by a police dog named Molniya, who severely mauled her, allowing the two Cossacks to catch up. When she refused to surrender and charged them with a knife, they killed her with their cavalry sabres. Police sniper Volkov killed the fifth gang member shortly thereafter, ending the gunfight.

After she crashed the cars, the gang's hostage, Anna Katzir, was stabbed six times by Nataliia Layevska, but she crawled away from the scene and received medical attention from a civilian doctor, who rendered first aid. The gang's second hostage, a twelve-year boy, was abandoned shortly before the gang fled their hideout. Two policemen were lightly wounded.

Given the gang's noteriety and the number of spectators present, the final Yevropeiska Street Gunfight has been received attention even as far as the international press, who have compared the gang's exploits to everything from Bonny and Clyde to the Siege of Sidney Street.

2

Monday, September 25th 2017, 5:56pm

Modernization of the Caspian Flotilla
January - The VMF Rossii has accelerated a program to modernize the Caspian Flotilla with the order of five Makhachkala-class coastguard patrol ships, a patrol-oriented variant of the Project 83 "Avantyurin" class small antisubmarine ships. Five vessels of this modified class, named for cities in the southern Caspian region, have been laid down at the beginning of this month. The Russian Foreign Ministry has advised the governments of Persia and Azerbaijan, who also possess coastline on the Caspian Sea, that the five new ships will replace ten more antiquated vessels of the Lilya class currently deployed in Baku with the 14th Corvette Flotilla.

Ivanovski-Layevska Gang Terrorizes Cherkassy
February - The Ivanovski-Layevska Gang, led by bandit Oleksandr Ivanovski and Nataliia Layevska, continues to stage robberies in the region of Ukraine, with fourteen crimes in the region of Cherkassy over the months of December and early January. The gang has apparently chosen to target some of the relatively few privately-owned banks operating in the city, principally the Sberbank Ukrainy (Ukrainian Savings Bank), which is privately owned, staging five different robberies on all three different branch locations within the city. In the fifth robbery, Nataliia Layevska allegedly shot and seriously wounded two armed guards hired to protect the bank, and the gang took a nineteen-year old teller, Anna Katzir, hostage in order to escape from police. Ms. Katzir is the second known kidnap victim of the gang, and remains missing as of the fifth of February.

Although the Ivanovski-Layevska Gang began operations in the regional capital of Kiev last year, sometime in December they apparently moved their operations down the Dnieper to Cherkassy. It is believed that they had a close encounter with Kiev police in November, and moved to Cherkassy as a result. The newly-formed Federal Security Service requested the regional authorities for permission to become involved, which so far has not been granted.

Chinese Confront Russia in Bering Strait
February - The Russian Federation government has announced that a military confrontation has occurred in the Bering Strait between Russian Federation naval and coastal defenses and a Chinese warship. A heavily-armed Chinese icebreaker, the Zhuhai, was sent by Beijing to reconnoiter the Arctic in preparation for further expeditions, including alleged commercial exploitation and an attempt to intrude upon the Northern Sea Route.

According to sources in Petrograd, Russian military forces urgently requested the Chinese warship to turn around as it passed into the Russian security zone in the Bering Strait, defended by coastal batteries on Ostrov Ratmanova (also known as Big Diomede Island), which fired several warning shots. Although initially stopping in response to the warning shots, the icebreaker moved into the waters on the American side of the strait, and attempted to finish transiting to the Arctic Ocean. The Russian cruiser Admiral Senyavin and the American icebreaker-guardship Bear, under threat of force, then escorted the Chinese warship back south, where it is now believed to be returning to Chinese waters.

The incident marks an extremely serious Chinese affront to the Russian Federation, which, at the moment, is one of the few neighboring powers that retains normal diplomatic and economic relations with Beijing. President Fyodorov and Chairman of the Government Sergeyev both, however, advised caution and indicated that every diplomatic effort would be made to bring relations with China back to a solid footing.

Chinese Expel Russian Ambassador
February - In the aftermath of the Bering Straits Incident of February 5th, the Chinese prime minister expelled Grigori Adamov, the senior Russian diplomat to Beijing, declaring him persona non grata. According to the Russian Foreign Ministry, Ambassador Adamov attempted to leave after having received the prime minister's statement, and delivering a Russian response. The Chinese prime minister took affront at the Russian government's request for caution and restraint, and attempted to bully Adamov with insulting language, attempting to force him to overstep his instructions from the President and the Foreign Ministry. Having no success at baiting Ambassador Adamov into an argument, the prime minister ordered Adamov ejected from China.

In a public statement, Peterhof declared that the President found Ambassador Adamov's behavior as 'highly satisfactory' and criticized the Chinese government's "poor foresight" in ejecting an ambassador who could help negotiate a conclusion to an ongoing crisis.

Responding to questions from reporters, the government's spokesman stated that the Russian Federation would not retaliate for Ambassador Adamov's ejection by similarly ejecting Chinese Ambassador Jhijun Lin from Russia. "Unlike the Chinese, we do not feel expelling ambassadors is a profitable or wise move to respond to a crisis."

Cam Ranh Bay Security Breach
February - Locals discovered the severed leg of a commando frogman who is believed to have attempted to infiltrate the Russian and French naval anchorage in Cam Ranh Bay, Indochina. The Russian base commandant was informed of the discovery by local police officials. The VMF Rossii has reacted strongly to the infiltration, asking the Indochinese Patrouille Navale, responsible for coastal security, to increase security around the port. A joint investigation has been launched.

Army Hunts Wolves in Vyatka
March - Troops of the 191st Rifle Division have been called out to conduct a major sweep of the Darovskoy Raion in the Vyatka Oblast following a series of attacks by wolves in that region. It is believed a harsh winter has caused the wolves to move out of the wilderness toward human-occupied regions, where they have attacked and killed an unknown number of children and lone adults, particularly those living outside towns and villages.

Synthetic Rubber Production Meets National Goals
March - According to figures published this month by the Ministry of Labour, the production of synthetic rubber within the Russian Federation surpassed half a million tons annual capacity in 1947, sufficient to completely satisfy not only the Federation's own internal market, but also export to friendly nations. Once, the rubber cartels of the west laughed at the daydream of Sergei Lebedev of producing tyres from potatoes or oil, but now, Russian industry can pursue its course without fear of supply disruptions. The Russian Federation continues to be a world leader in developing cheaper and less labor or material-intensive methods for synthetic rubber production.

Preparations for 1948 Militariad
March - Final preparations are underway for the 1948 Militariad, the second repetition of this contest to be hosted by Russia. The Militariad will be held during the months of April and May at locations around the Russian Federation.

3

Monday, September 25th 2017, 5:58pm

Aviation Cruiser Petropavlovsk, Gulf of Paria
Sunday, March 28, 1948

Vice Admiral Gordey Levchenko glanced out over the flight deck of his flagship, the aviation cruiser Petropavlovsk. The ship swung easily at anchor in the calm waters off Port-of-Spain, with little work being done aboard ship. The three aviation cruisers of OG Jove had spent the last two and a half months cruising slowly between the various French and Atlantean ports in the central Atlantic, practicing their "salesmanship" - crew slang for aircraft operations. Doubled pilot berths on Petropavlovsk and her two sisterships meant that there were more than enough pilots for the limited numbers of planes.

For the most part, OG Jove had stayed off the main shipping lanes, encountering few merchant ships and even fewer warships. They'd had a Brazilian destroyer shadow them briefly, as the task force dipped below the equator, celebrating the line-crossing traditions in the style of sailors throughout the years. Levchenko had fortunately crossed the line in years past, but he'd been surprised at how many of his sailors had also done so.

The cost of good salesmanship was a lot of hard work and a lot of strain on aircraft, mostly older Sukhoi Su-5 dive bombers and La-9K fighters. Levchenko had lost two Su-5s and an La-9 due to mechanical failures and ditching, although on all three occasions, the plane-guard destroyer Rekordny had snatched up the crews before the aircraft sank. Rekordny's captain, a young freshly-promoted kapitan II rang, had cheekily ordered a large flag displaying a fishing pole raised on his ship's mainmast.

But now, at anchor in the sheltered Gulf of Paria, it was at last time for a respite. "Salesmanship" was halted. Planes were secured below for maintenance. Liberty boats were hoisted over the side, and swimmers dotted the water around the ships.

Other allied warships had joined them in the anchorage, including several ships from Atlantis, serving as hosts. Two Chilean Navy cruisers, Araucanía and Los Lagos, had made their now-traditional pilgrimage to the Gulf of Paria to work up with their Atlantean friends, far from prying eyes; they would be returning to Chile on the morning tide, and Levchenko planned to attend a farewell dinner to be held aboard the Los Lagos.

The only thing the task force missed - and which Levchenko had no way to rectify - was a sufficient quantity of chilled alchohol for a good steel beach party. The two Sadko-class supply ships that doddled around in OG Jove's wake were too small for good refrigeration - a fact which Levchenko planned to point out, somewhat scathingly, in his final mission report to High Command. Maybe this time someone would listen.

OG Jove would only stay in the Gulf a few more days before turning back on the long return voyage to Mother Russia. Levchenko didn't mind. He'd received word from the intelligence officer on his staff that the Germans were planning some sort of major naval exercise in the North Sea soon; the Admiralty had ordered OG Jove to remain south of the 44th Parallel, at least until the exercise was over, so that the British didn't come to the erronous conclusion that some sort of mischief was afoot. From speaking with the French commander in Dakar, Levchenko knew that, for the same reason, the French had chosen to send their fleet at Brest to make a 'quick' cruise to Indochina.

4

Wednesday, October 25th 2017, 7:47pm

New Agency Formed
April - The 3rd Special Bureau of the Military-Industrial Commission has been reformed into the Rossiyskoe aviatsionno-kosmicheskoe agentstvo (Russian Aviation and Cosmic Agency) with the goal of overseeing centralized planning for Russian high-altitude rocketry endeavors. The agency, which will be headed by its new director Pavlov Polzin, will report to the Chairman of the Government of the Russian Federation.

Gang Survives Brush With Army
April - Ukrainian bandits Oleksandr Ivanovski and Nataliia Layevska both survived an unexpected shootout with a Russian Army unit just outside the city of Kremenchuk. The gang had apparently left behind Cherkassy where they had staged sixteen bank robberies over the last three months, and had apparently fled the increasingly intense scrutiny of police. The six members of the gang, travelling in two cars, took a ferry across the Dniepr River near Kremenchuk, boarding the ferry just before four Cossack soldiers, part of a local army unit, came aboard with their truck. One of the Cossacks noticed and recognized the gang's hostage, kidnapped Cherkassy bank teller Anna Katzir, and offered her a cigarette in an attempt to confirm her identity. Layevska, the closest gang member, began shouting at the soldier, and a struggle developed between the Cossacks and the six bandits, who opened up with illicit submachine guns. Two soldiers were killed and the other two injured during the gunfight. The Cossack soldier who had first noticed Ms. Katzir survived, despite suffering thirty-one bullet wounds, and reportedly shot three gang-members including Nataliia Layevska herself, although it is believed that none of the gang were killed. Twelve other bystanders were injured, two seriously, and the gang took a second hostage, identified only as a twelve-year old boy.

In response to the gunfight, the government of the Ukrainian Federation Republic took the unprecedented step of tripling the monetary reward for information leading to the arrest of the gang members.

Petrograd Affirmation
April - In the political aftermath of the Danish Straits Incident, the Russian Federation government has issued a notice dubbed 'the Petrograd Affirmation' to the Kingdom of Denmark, voluntarily declaring that Russian submarines will not attempt a submerged or covert passage of the Danish Belts, and will endeavor to provide the Danish Ministry of Defense with twenty-four hours notice, insofar as practicable, whenever a Russian warship intends to transit any of the Danish straits.

Presidential Address to Duma
May - In an open letter to the Duma, President Fyodorov declared that his program of electricity deregulation has been a resounding success. Citing three different studies commissioned by various different parties, Fyodorov indicated the amount of wasted electricity has dropped nearly 30% across the entire Federation, while the number and severity of blackouts has decreased by a like figure.

Fyodorov additionally responded to Duma questions about international affairs. Relations with the Baltic States, particularly Latvia and Lithuania, continue to improve, particularly with the announcement that Lithuanian President Kazys Grinius will step down at the end of 1948, restarting a more free democratic process. Fyodorov indicated that the Russian Federation's position on the Treaty of Stockholm, where Lithuania surrendered territory and trade concessions to Germany, has not changed. Since the death of the seventh Bogd Khan in 1947, the Mongolian government continues to undergo an extended interregnum, with Khasbazar Ochirbat, the close friend and personal secretary of the deceased Bogd Khan, continuing to exercise the reins of state. With regard to the recent British violation of Danish territorial waters, Fyodorov expressed his opinion that the event was a 'lamentable lapse of judgment' but did not pose any serious tactical, operational, or strategic challenges to either the Russian Federation or the German state. Fyodorov noted that the government's recent notice to Copenhagen, the so-called Petrograd Confirmation, represents a Russian attempt to lead by example in showing respect for Danish general neutrality.

Morskoi Sbornik: Naval Jets in Sea Service
May - The glorious Marine-Maritime Fleet of the Russian Federation has announced that in the current training exercise of the Northern Fleet, code-named Rubin-2, new turbojet powered aircraft have been deployed for the first time on an operational basis at sea! The Sukhoi Su-7 and Alekseyev I-212 fighters, products of the devoted workers and talented academicians of our industrious motherland, are among the very first ship-based turbojet aircraft to enter sea service anywhere in the world, proving to all that the Russian Federation stands ready to defend itself against any foolish power wishing to disturb the tranquility of our peaceful and enlightened age! [1]

1948 Militariad Completed
May - The second 'Militariad', an international event which has grown out of the Russian Ground Forces' internal readiness competitions, has completed. Disappointingly, Russia itself only received one gold medal out of the thirteen categories, but received three silver and three bronze medals. (See separate report.)

Ukrainian FR: "Ivanovski-Layevska Gang Terminated"
June - Police officials in the Ukrainian Federation Republic announced that all eight members of the Ivanovski-Layevska Gang, which robbed dozens of banks in Kiev and Cherkassy, finally met their end on June 18th in the city of Poltava. The gang had apparently decided to take refuge with a gang-member's family member on the outskirts of Poltava. However, the relative instead approached the Ukrainian police, who narrowly missed surrounding the gang at their new hideout. Alerted to the police presence, the gang scattered and attempted to flee, forcing their hostage, Anna Katzir, to drive one of their three cars. Instead of doing so, she crashed it into one of the gang's other cars, immobilizing both, near the Monument at the Grave Ivan Kotliarevsky. The third car, undamaged, raced away, pursued by two police motorcycles. However the driver eventually lost control of the car, causing it to roll into a cemetary. Two of the three occupants were thrown from the car, one being crushed underneath it. The two surviving gang members continued resisting arrest, and were shot down when they drew guns to fight the pursuing police.

Eight Ukrainian policemen and two Cossack cavalrymen belonging to a so-called "unit of special designation" engaged the gang members in a gunfight that lasted less than fifteen minutes. Two gang members were killed in the opening seconds of the gunfight. Gang leader Oleksandr Ivanovski was killed by Russian police sharpshooter Lavrentiy Volkov, while Nataliia Layevska, armed with a light machine gun stolen from a group of Cossacks the gang had killed in April, held off the police until she had expended all of her ammunition. She fled, briefly outrunning police until she was chased down by a police dog named Molniya, who severely mauled her, allowing the two Cossacks to catch up. When she refused to surrender and charged them with a knife, they killed her with their cavalry sabres. Police sniper Volkov killed the fifth gang member shortly thereafter, ending the gunfight.

After she crashed the cars, the gang's hostage, Anna Katzir, was stabbed six times by Nataliia Layevska, but she crawled away from the scene and received medical attention from a civilian doctor, who rendered first aid. The gang's second hostage, a twelve-year boy, was abandoned shortly before the gang fled their hideout. Two policemen were lightly wounded.

Given the gang's noteriety and the number of spectators present, the final Yevropeiska Street Gunfight has been received attention even as far as the international press, who have compared the gang's exploits to everything from Bonny and Clyde to the Siege of Sidney Street.

* * * * *


Notes:
Note [1]: The Defenders of Our Motherland and the Enlightened Age actually don't have that many jets embarked. The carriers Kulikovo, Chesma, Kazan, and Grengam each carry four Su-7s each, while Azov and Osel carry four I-212s So while things are being talked up, the six ships barely have two squadrons worth of jets scattered across the entire fleet.

5

Wednesday, October 25th 2017, 7:51pm

Results of the International Army Games / Militariad, 1948


ALPINIST CHALLENGE
-- Overview: Tests mountain infantry skills in a series of events including skiing, free and rope climbing, and shooting.
-- Defending Champion: France.
-- Location: Labinsk, Krasnodar Krai
-- Prize: Winning team receives the gold Alpinist's Medallion and three thousand rubles prize money.

Rankings
1. Romania - Vânători de munte
2. France - 199e Bataillon de Chasseurs de Haute Montagne
3. Nordmark - Jegerkompaniet
4. Germany - Gebirgesdivision 1 (Bavarians)
5. Czechoslovakia
6. Russia - 28th Highland Mountain Division
7. France - 27e Division Alpine
8. Yugoslavia - 35th Infantry Regiment, Twenty-First Mountain Division
9. France - 64e Division Alpine
10. Atlantis
11. Russia - 1st Mountain Cavalry Division
12. Poland - 21st Mountain Infantry Division / Podhale Rifles Division
13. Germany - Gebirgesdivision 4 (Swabians)
14. Germany - Gebirgesdivision 3 (Austrians)
15. Russia - 9th Mountain Rifle Division

* * * * *


GRENADIER CHALLENGE
-- Overview: Tests the skills of an infantry squad in a series of events including team obstacle course, relay obstacle course, 10km run, and shooting range. Teams had to consist of at least five individuals including one rifle grenadier, one sharpshooter, and one machine gunner.
-- Defending Champion: Russia.
-- Location: Volkhov
-- Prize: Winning team receives the gold Grenadier's Medallion and three thousand rubles prize money.

Rankings
1. Britain - 1st Battalion King's Own Scottish Borderers
2. France - 94e Régiment d'Infanterie de Marine
3. Atlantis
4. Bulgaria
5. France - 2e Division d'Infanterie Coloniale
6. Netherlands - Garderegiment Grenadiers en Jagers
7. Germany - Infanteriedivision 19 (Hannoverians)
8. Germany - Infanteriedivision 1 (Prussians)
9. Czechoslovakia
10. Poland - 1st Legions Infantry Division
11. Russia - 10th Guards Rifle Division
12. Atlantis
13. Russia - 13th Guards Rifle Division
14. Lithuania
15. Netherlands - Regiment Limburgse Jagers
16. Romania
17. Russia - 5th Guards Motor Rifle Division
18. Latvia - Bataljona Mežzinis
19. Germany - Infanteriedivision 9 (Hessians)
20. Yugoslavia - 45th Independent Infantry Regiment
21. Belgium - RCPBGr
22. Netherlands - Regiment Infanterie Oranje Gelderland
23. France - 6e Division légère blindée
24. Belgium - 1RCA
25. Britain - 2nd Battalion Sherwood Foresters (Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire Regiment)

* * * * *


PRESENTATION
-- Overview: A series of judged events including military marching drill and rifle display team.
-- Defending Champion: Czechoslovakia.
-- Location: Moscow Suvorov Military School, Moscow
-- Prize: Winning team receives the gold Presentation Medallion and three thousand rubles prize money.

Rankings
1. Germany - Wachbataillon of the Heer
2. Britain - The Coldstream Guards
3. Czechoslovakia - Prague Castle Guards
4. Poland - Ceremonial Battalion of the Polish Army
5. Lithuania - Lithuanian Life Guards Regiment
6. Atlantis
7. Russia - Independent Special-Purpose Motorized Rifle Division of the Internal Troops
8. France - The Republican Guards
9. Russia - Peterhof Regiment / Peterhof Guards
10. Netherlands
11. Yugoslavia - 1st Guards Infantry Regiment, Guards Infantry Division
12. Belgium - Regiment Carabiniers Prins Boudewijn – Grenadiers
13. Latvia - Color Guard of the 3rd Latvian National Guard Battalion
14. Atlantis
15. Britain - The Grenadier Guards
16. Russia - Lifeguard Jaeger Regiment (Gattchino)
17. Czechoslovakia
18. Romania

* * * * *


FROGMAN CHALLENGE
-- Overview: Tests the skills of combat swimmers in a series of tests including a distance swim in combat gear, demolition of an underwater obstacle, and infiltration of a shore-line.
-- Defending Champion: France.
-- Location: Mariupol, Ukraine
-- Prize: Winning team receives the gold Frogman's Medallion and three thousand rubles prize money.

Rankings
1. France - Commandos Marine / Nageurs de Combat
2. Russia - 4th Company of Special Designation
3. Russia - 1st Company of Special Designation
4. France - 1DINA
5. Britain - The Special Boat Squadron, 1st Special Air Brigade
6. France - 2DINA
7. Germany
8. Russia - 1st Separate Special Battalion Vostok
9. Atlantis - Corsairs Special Diving Unit

* * * * *


PARACHUTE RAID
-- Overview: Tests the skills of military special parachutists. Teams parachuted from an aircraft into a designated drop zone 40km from a target area where shooting exercises were held. Teams had to consist of at least five individuals including one rifle grenadier, one sharpshooter, and one machine gunner.
-- Defending Champion: Russia.
-- Location: Ryazan
-- Prize: Winning team receives the gold Parachutist's Medallion and three thousand rubles prize money.

Rankings
1. France - 1REP
2. Germany - Kommando Spezialkräfte
3. France - 13e Regiment Dragons Parachutistes
4. Netherlands - 1e Parachute Fusilier Regiment
5. Yugoslavia - 1st Pandur Battalion
6. Bulgaria
7. Germany - Fallschirmjägerdivision 1
8. Britain - 1st Battalion The Parachute Regiment
9. Germany - Fallschirmjägerdivision 2
10. Russia - 4th Airborne Division
11. France - 1ère Regiment Chasseurs Parachutiste
12. Atlantis
13. Russia - 3rd Guards Separate Special-Purpose Regiment
14. Atlantis
15. Russia - 1st Guards Airborne Division
16. Atlantis

* * * * *


1200KM MILITARY RALLY
-- Overview: Tests the skills of motorized reconnaissance troops. A team of four men cover a 1200km course starting in Arkhangelsk and ending in Petrograd with twenty checkpoints, using unimproved tracks and cross-country terrain. Competitors could either bring a vehicle of their choice (radio is mandatory) or be provided with a Russian NAZ-67 4WD vehicle.
-- Defending Champion: Russia.
-- Location: Akhangelsk-Petrograd
-- Prize: Winning team receives custody of the Rally-Raid Trophy for one year and six thousand rubles prize money.
-- Note: The 1947 Rally was only 250km, so the 1948 version is significantly harder.

Rankings
1. Germany - Panzerdivision 11
2. Poland - 10th Mounted Rifle Regiment (Reconnaissance)
3. Russia - 14th Guards Mechanized Brigade
4. Britain - 1st Battalion, 12th (Prince of Wales's) Royal Lancers
5. France - 3eme Régiment de hussards
6. Atlantis
7. Russia - 13th Motor Rifle Division
8. Germany - Panzerdivision 2
9. Atlantis
10. Germany - Panzergrenadierdivision 12
11. Russia - 5th Guards Tank Division
12. Atlantis
13. Czechoslovakia
14. France - 2e Régiment de Hussards de Marine
15. France - 36e groupe de reconnaissance de division d'infanterie

* * * * *


250KM MOTORCYCLE RAID
-- Overview: Tests the skills of motorized reconnaissance troops. A team of four men with motorcycles cover a 250km course with eighteen checkpoints, using unimproved tracks and cross-country terrain. Teams need to consist of at least four men, with either two motorcycle-sidecars or four motorcycles.
-- Defending Champion: Russia.
-- Location: Tver
-- Prize: Winning team receives the gold Reconnaissance Trooper's Medallion and four thousand rubles prize money.

Rankings
1. Atlantis
2. Russia - Independent Special-Purpose Motorized Rifle Division of the Internal Troops
3. Poland - 10th Mounted Rifle Regiment (Reconnaissance)
4. Russia - 1st Mountain Cavalry Division
5. Atlantis
6. Belgium - 3rd Régiment des Chasseurs Ardennais
7. Netherlands
8. Russia - 13th Guards Rifle Division

* * * * *


ARMOURED SPEARHEAD
-- Overview: A platoon of medium tanks (three minumum, five maximum) and their crews conduct a timed cross-country drive through obstacles including hills, water obstacles, tank traps, and rough terrain, ending on a shooting range with pop-up targets, to be engaged both with main gun and machine guns. Teams may bring tanks of their choice or be provided with Russian T-44-76s.
-- Defending Champion: Russia (T-47 Tsiklon).
-- Location: Alabino Proving Grounds, near Moscow
-- Prize: Winning team receives custody of the Trophée Argent de la cavalerie blindée (a silver trophy contributed by the French Army) for one year and ten thousand rubles prize money. The best Russian team is awarded the Tukhachevsky Medallion and ten thousand rubles prize money.

Rankings
1. France - 2e Division Blindée
2. Netherlands - 4th Panser Regiment
3. Germany - Panzerdivision 9
4. Poland - 2nd Armoured Regiment
5. Bulgaria - 1st Armoured Brigade
6. France - 1er Régiment de Dragons de Marine
7. Russia - 1st Guards Mechanized Brigade
8. Atlantis
9. Britain - 4th Royal Tank Regiment
10. Nordmark - Skaraborgs pansarregemente
11. France - 7e Division Blindée
12. Atlantis
13. Czechoslovakia
14. Germany - Panzerdivision 2
15. Latvia - No.4 Company of the Latvian Mechanised Brigade
16. Germany - Panzerbrigade 23
17. Russia - 4th Tank Brigade
18. Atlantis
19. Russia - 5th Guards Tank Division
20. Lithuania - 1st Tank Battalion of the 1st Mechanised Brigade

* * * * *


FLYING COLUMN
-- Overview: A team of two armoured infantry carriers and mounted infantry squad conduct a timed cross-country drive through obstacles, ending on a shooting range for the embarked infantry. Mounted infantry teams have to consist of at least five individuals per vehicle, including one rifle grenadier, one sharpshooter, and one machine gunner. The vehicles have to be armed with a machine gun and be armoured against small arms fire. (Tracked, half-tracked, and wheeled vehicles were permitted equally.) Teams may bring vehicles of their choice or be provided with Russian BTR-152s.
-- Defending Champion: Russia (BTR-152).
-- Location: Volkhov
-- Prize: Winning team receives the gold Dragun's Medallion and five thousand rubles prize money.

Rankings
1. Russia - 14th Guards Mechanized Brigade
2. Atlantis
3. Germany - Panzergrenadierdivision 12 (Pomeranians)
4. France - 131e Régiment d'Infanterie Motorisée
5. Bulgaria - 3rd Armoured Brigade
6. Belgium - 12th Regiment of the Line
7. Atlantis
8. Czechoslovakia
9. Russia - 5th Guards Motor Rifle Division
10. Britain - 1st Battalion, 12th (Prince of Wales's) Royal Lancers
11. Germany - Panzergrenadierdivision 14 (Saxons)
12. Atlantis
13. Britain - 1st East Riding Yeomanry
14. Russia - 5th Guards Tank Division
15. Germany - Jaeger Brigade of Eingreifdivision 1

* * * * *


PIONEER'S CHALLENGE
-- Overview: Tests the skills of combat engineers in building a four-span pontoon bridge (capable of bearing tanks), clearing a roadway through a forested area, and constructing defensive trenches, laying a (dud) minefield, barbed wire obstacles, and a timber-roofed bunker to a set of specifications. Maximum team size is set at fifteen men.
-- Defending Champion: Russia.
-- Location: Rzhev
-- Prize: Winning team receives the gold Pioneer's Medallion and four thousand rubles prize money.

Rankings
1. Germany - Infanteriedivision 1 (Prussians)
2. Russia - 23rd Engineer-Sapper Battalion of 40th Rifle Division
3. Belgium - 2nd d’Anvers Fortress Regiment
4. France
5. Atlantis
6. Russia - 34th Separate Engineer Battalion of 12th Rifle Division
7. Yugoslavia - 110th Engineer Battalion, Second Infantry Division
8. Atlantis
9. Germany - Infanteriedivision 9 (Hessians)
10. Czechoslovakia
11. Germany - Infanteriedivision 19 (Hannoverians)
12. Atlantis
13. Poland - 11th Sapper Battalion (11th Infantry Division)
14. Russia - 75th Light Engineering Battalion of 15th Rifle Division

* * * * *


SAPPER'S CHALLENGE
-- Overview: Tests the skills of combat engineers in demolishing a series of barbed wire obstacles, a tank trap, and a concrete bunker, followed by sweeping a (dud) minefield. Maximum team size is set at fifteen men.
-- Defending Champion: Russia.
-- Location: Rzhev
-- Prize: Winning team receives the gold Sapper's Medallion and four thousand rubles prize money.

Rankings
1. Poland - 11th Sapper Battalion (11th Infantry Division)
2. Germany - Panzerdivision 2
3. Russia - 55th Sapper Battalion of 1st Rifle Division
4. Czechoslovakia
5. Atlantis
6. Russia - 320th Sapper Battalion of 2nd Rifle Division
7. Germany - Panzerdivision 11
8. Netherlands - Garderegiment Grenadiers en Jagers
9. France
10. Belgium - 1st Régiment des Chasseurs Ardennais
11. Atlantis
12. Russia - 23rd Engineer-Sapper Battalion of 40th Rifle Division
13. Germany - Panzergrenadierdivision 12
14. Yugoslavia - 110th Engineer Battalion, Second Infantry Division
15. France

* * * * *


THUNDERBOLT
-- Overview: Tests the skills of artillerists in transporting a field howitzer across unimproved terrain and then firing at a target 7km away. Teams could bring their own equipment or be provided with a Russian truck and 76mm regimental howitzer.
-- Defending Champion: Bulgaria.
-- Location: Mikhailovskaya Military Artillery Academy, Petrograd
-- Prize: Winning team receives custody of a silver 105mm shell (provided by the Bulgarian Army) for one year and four thousand rubles prize money.

Rankings
1. Yugoslavia - 17th Independent Artillery Regiment
2. Britain - 4th Regiment Royal Horse Artillery
3. Bulgaria - 3rd Artillery Regiment
4. Russia - 2nd Guards Airborne Artillery Regiment
5. Germany - Infanteriedivision 1 (Prussians)
6. Russia - 155th Artillery Regiment of the 29th Motor Rifle Division
7. France
8. Russia - 224th Artillery Regiment of 16th Rifle Division
9. Germany - Infanteriedivision 19 (Hannoverians)
10. Atlantis
11. Atlantis
12. Germany - Infanteriedivision 9 (Hessians)
13. Netherlands - 3rd Regiment Korps Veldartillerie
14. Bulgaria - 7th Artillery Regiment
15. Netherlands - 5th Regiment Korps Veldartillerie

* * * * *


EQUESTRIAN PATROL
-- Overview: Tests the skills of military horsemen in a patrol, obstacle course, and team relay. Team had to consist of at least ten horses and riders.
-- Defending Champion: Poland.
-- Location: Volkhov
-- Prize: Winning team receives custody of a small silver Horseman's Trophy for one year and four thousand rubles prize money.

Rankings
1. Belgium - 2/4th Chasseurs à Cheval Regiment
2. Poland - 19th Volhynian Uhlan Regiment
3. Britain - The Blues
4. Russia - Kuban Cavalry Division
5. Russia - 1st Zaporozhe Cossack Cavalry Division
6. Britain - The Life Guards
7. Poland - 4th Cavalry Brigade
8. Russia - 1st Mountain Cavalry Division
9. Poland - 26th Greater Poland Uhlan Regiment

6

Thursday, January 11th 2018, 7:18pm

Additions to the Q1 news:

Quoted

Chinese Confront Russia in Bering Strait
February - The Russian Federation government has announced that a military confrontation has occurred in the Bering Strait between Russian Federation naval and coastal defenses and a Chinese warship. A heavily-armed Chinese icebreaker, the Zhuhai, was sent by Beijing to reconnoiter the Arctic in preparation for further expeditions, including alleged commercial exploitation and an attempt to intrude upon the Northern Sea Route.

According to sources in Petrograd, Russian military forces urgently requested the Chinese warship to turn around as it passed into the Russian security zone in the Bering Strait, defended by coastal batteries on Ostrov Ratmanova (also known as Big Diomede Island), which fired several warning shots. Although initially stopping in response to the warning shots, the icebreaker moved into the waters on the American side of the strait, and attempted to finish transiting to the Arctic Ocean. The Russian cruiser Admiral Senyavin and the American icebreaker-guardship Bear, under threat of force, then escorted the Chinese warship back south, where it is now believed to be returning to Chinese waters.

The incident marks an extremely serious Chinese affront to the Russian Federation, which, at the moment, is one of the few neighboring powers that retains normal diplomatic and economic relations with Beijing. President Fyodorov and Chairman of the Government Sergeyev both, however, advised caution and indicated that every diplomatic effort would be made to bring relations with China back to a solid footing.

Chinese Expel Russian Ambassador
February - In the aftermath of the Bering Straits Incident of February 5th, the Chinese prime minister expelled Grigori Adamov, the senior Russian diplomat to Beijing, declaring him persona non grata. According to the Russian Foreign Ministry, Ambassador Adamov attempted to leave after having received the prime minister's statement, and delivering a Russian response. The Chinese prime minister took affront at the Russian government's request for caution and restraint, and attempted to bully Adamov with insulting language, attempting to force him to overstep his instructions from the President and the Foreign Ministry. Having no success at baiting Ambassador Adamov into an argument, the prime minister ordered Adamov ejected from China.

In a public statement, Peterhof declared that the President found Ambassador Adamov's behavior as 'highly satisfactory' and criticized the Chinese government's "poor foresight" in ejecting an ambassador who could help negotiate a conclusion to an ongoing crisis.

Responding to questions from reporters, the government's spokesman stated that the Russian Federation would not retaliate for Ambassador Adamov's ejection by similarly ejecting Chinese Ambassador Jhijun Lin from Russia. "Unlike the Chinese, we do not feel expelling ambassadors is a profitable or wise move to respond to a crisis."

7

Thursday, January 11th 2018, 7:56pm



Oh my, on my, oh my.

:whistling:

8

Friday, January 12th 2018, 12:21pm

Bit disappointed there were no waves of tanks heading for Beijing but I'll keep the popcorn close just in case!

9

Friday, January 12th 2018, 1:11pm

Bit disappointed there were no waves of tanks heading for Beijing but I'll keep the popcorn close just in case!


You mean sonething like this?

10

Friday, January 12th 2018, 1:47pm

Maybe, perhaps with a few more explosions? ;)

11

Friday, January 12th 2018, 3:01pm

Well, Russia really doesn't want to send waves of tanks heading for Beijing. All they want is for Dragon not to poke sleeping Bear. Bear not like being poked. It is still hibernation time.

...that said, if Bear keeps getting poked... Bear does have waves of tanks they could send for Beijing. Namely, the largest armoured force in the world, plus the largest air force in the world.

12

Monday, January 15th 2018, 3:31pm

Joint Franco-Russian Declaration of February 10, 1948

Quoted

Joint Franco-Russian Declaration of February 10, 1948
The Republic of France and the Russian Federation, after grave deliberations, have announced that they have determined the following:

Firstly, that the Republic of China (now known as the Empire of China, and hereafter as China) has violated the Pact of Neutrality between France, China, and Russia (hereafter referred to as the Neutrality Treaty) in their relations with neighboring powers. This article, having stated the high contracting parties intention to refrain from threat or use of force in their relations with other parties, was violated by China during their military occupation of the Kalayaan Islands, and served as the casus belli of the South China Sea War.

Secondly, that China violated Article I by unspoken threat of force during the extended crisis preceding the Sino-Korean War, which invited a Korean response.

Thirdly, that China committed an act of aggression by sending an armed military ship to the Bering Strait, in defiance of repeated requests by the Russian Federation to desist, as such an action represented a strategic challenge to Russian interests. This action resulted in the Bering Straits Incident.

Fourthly, that China has chosen to nullify the treaty, citing the Russian Federation's security response to the Bering Straits Incident, referred to in point three, thus ignoring Article II, which requires the disputing parties to submit the matter of dispute to arbitration.

Fifthly, that China has ejected the Russian Federation's ambassador to Beijing in response to Russian diplomatic efforts to address the situation.

Sixthly, that the Republic of France and the Russian Federation are already within their rights under Article V of the Neutrality Pact to abrogate the treaty for the reasons cited in points one and two, and possibly three.

Therefore,

Firstly, the Republic of France and the Russian Federation submit the matter to arbitration by a member state of the League of Nations, within thirty days of this pronouncement.

Secondly, the Republic of France and the Russian Federation request as arbitrators the United States, Great Britain, or Germany, in decreasing order of preference.

Thirdly, being in gross violation of the Neutrality Treaty, if China does not accept the previously-mentioned request for arbitration within one month, the Republic of France and the Russian Federation will declare said treaty null and void, effective March 10th, 1948.

Texts published in French and Russian, both texts being regarded equivalent.

Cross-posted

13

Monday, January 15th 2018, 3:50pm

Speaking in character here:

"The Philippine Government has long warned the world of the aggressive intentions of the Chinese Empire. That it should deliberately provoke the Russian Federation by mounting an armed expedition to the Arctic wastes comes as no surprise. While it is to be hoped that cooler heads will prevail and the matter can be brought to a peaceful resolution through arbitration we remind the world of China's long record of provocation and overt hostilities; a careful watch must be kept on Chinese ambitions throughout the Far East."

14

Tuesday, January 16th 2018, 10:00am

IC the British would not say much at this stage, their inclusion on the list of possible arbitration members would preclude any public judgement as to blame from London on the matter.
The old Dutch government would echo the last part of the Philippine Government's statement but does worry privately about Russia's heavy handed approach.
The Belgians find it an interesting distraction in the newspapers but no official response is likely.
The Argentines have some sympathy with China, having had their own Antarctic ambitions thwarted by colonialist European powers and worries over how freedom of navigation is slowly being nibbled away by the Great Powers for their own ends.

15

Wednesday, January 17th 2018, 7:43pm

Japan notices that all three nations mentioned for the potential role as arbitrator in the matter are former members of the Eight-Nation Alliance and therefore cannot be trusted to be neutral in this matter even if almost 50 years have passed since the Boxer Rebellion. Japan feels that a League of Nations member with little issues or conflicts with China would be better qualified as arbitrator. Due to certain events known to all, Japan has no love for China, who time and again have shown their evil, hostile and unfair nature. However, if the League of Nations were to allow the United States, Great Britain, or Germany to be the arbitrator in the matter, then the League of Nations would be no better than China and that is something that Japan cannot and will not accept.

(OOC that is just Japan's opinion. I think that since they are no longer a LoN member, China might feel that no matter which nation is selected, all LoN member would be biassed, more likely to rule in favor of LoN members Russia and France rather than being truly neutral in the matter)

16

Wednesday, January 17th 2018, 9:25pm

Japan notices that all three nations mentioned for the potential role as arbitrator in the matter are former members of the Eight-Nation Alliance and therefore cannot be trusted to be neutral in this matter even if almost 50 years have passed since the Boxer Rebellion. Japan feels that a League of Nations member with little issues or conflicts with China would be better qualified as arbitrator. Due to certain events known to all, Japan has no love for China, who time and again have shown their evil, hostile and unfair nature. However, if the League of Nations were to allow the United States, Great Britain, or Germany to be the arbitrator in the matter, then the League of Nations would be no better than China and that is something that Japan cannot and will not accept.

(OOC that is just Japan's opinion. I think that since they are no longer a LoN member, China might feel that no matter which nation is selected, all LoN member would be biassed, more likely to rule in favor of LoN members Russia and France rather than being truly neutral in the matter)

I myself had not noted the Eight-Nation Alliance connection, but that is a legitimate point. While Russia and France have stated their preference for arbitrators, I'd already determined for my own part that some of the preferences were likely to be objectionable to China on one level or another. The Chinese, of course, would need to forward their own counterproposal for arbitrators, which R&F may or may not find objectionable in turn. China's difficulty will be finding a power that is actually sufficiently neutral for them (which is probably why only Russia and France are seeking arbitration).

Ultimately, Russia has a bit of a preference toward preferring the British as an arbitrator, because, in spite of past bad history between Britain and China, there's just as much if not more bad history between Russia and Britain. (Frankly, I personally don't know how Britain would rule in such a case, which makes me feel they're a decently neutral power for this purpose.)

17

Wednesday, January 17th 2018, 9:49pm

Speaking out of character here:

The Kingdom of Yugoslavia might be considered sufficiently neutral to all parties concerned to take on the role of arbitrator.

18

Thursday, January 18th 2018, 10:05am

OOC: the fact China is no longer an LoN member makes the proposal problematic. There is no way to enforce whatever arbitration decision is made and no reason for China to accept the arbitration at all. Saying that, the LoN is the only international diplomatic body in Wesworld.
I hadn't thought about the Eight-Nation Alliance, but I would add to Brock's recommendations for Britain that in recent years, despite tensions, they have entered into diplomatic talks with China over Weihai and maritime access to Hong Kong in recent years and have come to agreements.
In any practical sense the ideal arbitration country should not be NPC as that raises issues with putting on other player hats etc. Otherwise I would nominate somewhere like Nordmark as a true non-interested party. Yugoslavia is suitably neutral and in-play but are they high-tiered enough to arbitrate a Great Power dispute? But if smaller nations are acceptable that raises Belgium, Ireland, Argentina as possibles too. Atlantis as another Great Power might also be neutral enough.

The ball though is in China's court to decide what its response is.

19

Thursday, September 13th 2018, 7:12pm

Work Begins on the Trans-Mongolian Railway
July - Workmen and engineers began construction of the Trans-Mongolian Railway. The rail line will stretch an estimated 2,200 kilometers, ranging from the northern border with Russia at Naushke to the southern border with China at Zamyn-Üüd. Agreements for the construction of the rail line were finalized between Russia and Mongolia in 1946, but an official agreement with China did not take place until earlier this year. Much of the work in Mongolia is being done by experienced Russian Federation construction firms, who are building the line in 1,520 mm Russian gauge. This will result in a break-of-gauge situation between the Trans-Mongolian Railway and the Chinese railways.

Summer Military Exercises Test the Defenders of Mother Russia
July - A dozen divisional military exercises were held at locations ranging from Vladivostok to Bratsk to Tashkent, testing the capabilities of Russian Ground Forces to conduct the defensive-offensive scenario 'Blue Breeze #3'.

Russian Jet Bomber Flies
July - The Ilyushin Il-28 jet bomber took off for its first air trials. The Il-28 is the second example of a Russian jet bomber to take to the air, following in the footsteps of the Tupolev Tu-72 / Tu-73.

Russian Sail Battleship in France as Movie Star
July - The replica 66-gun Russian sail battleship Sviatoi Pavel has arrived in Toulon, in southern France, as part of a Mediterranean goodwill tour. The Sviatoi Pavel, completed in 1945, made a prior visit to France in May, where it was open during the Cannes Film Festival, as part of a promotion accompanying the first showing of the documentary Thunder of Victory, about the great admiral Fyodor Ushakov (the second most victorious naval admiral of history after some Korean fellow with mutant turtles). The original Sviatoi Pavel, upon which the current replica vessel is modeled, was Admiral Ushakov's flagship for some of his earliest victories. Once it finishes its port call in France, the Sviatoi Pavel will sail to the Americas. It is rumoured that the vessel may be used for filming another movie, this time possibly for an American Hollywood production.

Mikoyan Nets Major Order
July - Orders were signed between the Russian VVS (Military Air Forces) and the Mikoyan-Gurevich OKB (design bureau) for a large order of military jet aircraft. According to military spokesmen, thirty-five hundred examples of the MiG-15 fighter jet will be delivered to the Military Air Forces during 1949, with the likelihood of further orders to follow. The Voyska PVO (Air Defense Forces) will continue procuring further I-174 fighters (jointly designed by Hans Multhopp of the German BFW firm and Semyon Lavochkin), with production likely to exceed fifteen hundred units by the end of 1948. At the present time, the Voyska PVO will not purchase the MiG-15, preferring instead the slightly higher performance of the I-174. Meanwhile, Russian Naval Aviation (AV-MF) continues to receive Sukhoi Su-7s and Alekseyev I-212s for use in from the larger aviation cruisers.

A number of prominent military procurement experts attributed the sizeable aircraft order to concerns over potential conflict with China, but others have pointed out a number of other reasons. For the last three years, many Russian aviation manufacturers have been conducting a series of systematic government-funded updates to their production centers, intended to make possible a rapid transition to jet aircraft. Small orders of military jets and propeller-powered aircraft for both civil and military customers have taken place during this time, but the military held off on a number of major aircraft replacement projects while waiting for jet technology to mature. Beginning in 1947 (even prior to the rise in concerns about Chinese action), the Russian air forces began taking orders for Mysasischev M-2 heavy bombers, Antonov An-4 strategic transports, and smaller numbers of Yak-15 and I-174 jet fighters.

First Phase of Petrograd Metro Completed
August - Construction crews finished the first phase of construction for the Petrograd Metro, with an official opening for the line scheduled for September. While the project is designed to improve mass transit for the capital city of Petrograd, designers and builders have lavished outstanding efforts for the Metro to showcase Russian culture, ranging from the architecture and artwork of the stations to the technological achievements of the trains themselves. One of the technological achievements hidden in the background of the project, however, is one of the world's largest and most advanced tunnel boring machines, without which the Metro construction would have greatly suffered. This machine shall remain on hand for use in the second phase of construction, set to begin next year.

Athletes Return from Olympics
August - Russian athletes triumphantly returned from the XIV Olympic Games in Germany with a collection of twenty-nine medals, including sixteen golds. Russian athletes triumphed in a number of fields, including a very strong showing in gymnastics, and a win (over Yugoslavia) in football.

Proposals for Azeri Reunification Continues to Cool
September - Nearly two years after postphoning a vote on a reunification plan, the Azeri Parliament delayed another key vote on the issue. Although leading politicians on both sides of the border state their interest in reunification of the two halves of Azerbaijan, the technical details have thus far proven insurmountable. Russia has offered to reunite the two areas under the auspices of the Russian Federation (as an autonomous territory), while Azerbaijan wants to remain independent while still acquiring the currently Russian-administered territory, including Baku. This proposal has been poorly received in the Federated Republic, the self-governing territory administered from Baku.

Sergetov to Visit Stockholm
September - Chairman of the Government (prime minister) Sergetov will visit Stockholm in October to conduct negotiations about trade, transportation, and politics.

New Aviation Cruisers Launched
September - The new aviation cruisers Fidonisi and Tendra were launched September 18th by shipyards in Petrograd. These vessels, designed to offer a degree of utility for the VMF Rossii, are small but modern exemplars of their type.

Borodina Stuns in Moscow
September - Moscow ballerina Yeléna Borodina has been stunning crowds in Moscow with her performances. The twenty-two year old Borodina, a native of Yaroslavl, has rapidly risen to prominence as one of Russia's greatest ballet performers, garnering awards and appearances.

Former Tsar Requests Permission to Visit Russia
September - Nicholas Romanov, formerly tsar of Russia until his abdication in 1917, has applied for permission to return to the country on a visit. The eighty-year old former ruler, who has lived in France since the formation of the Russian Federation nearly thirty years ago, has not visited Russia since his departure in 1919, allegedly due to a secret agreement with the government. Senior officials for President Fyodorov and the cabinet declined to address the issue with the press. Concerns have been raised even by members of the Duma as to the possibility of disturbances or even riots by pro- or anti-monarchist organizations within Russia.

20

Thursday, September 13th 2018, 7:19pm

Operation August Storm
One of the critical questions facing 1940s Mongolia was nationhood. In prior eras, Mongolia had seen both empire and incorporation as a province of China. In the late 1800s and early 1900s, turmoil in China caused Mongolia to take on autonomy and virtual independence, if not in name then in fact. By 1930, Inner Mongolia's autonomy was eroded and the region fell once more under Chinese suzerainty, but in 1911 Outer Mongolia declared independence under the eighth Bogd Khaan, who wanted to restore Mongolia's political fortunes as a state independent of both China and Russia.

The Bogd Khan and his advisors were able to maintain this state of independence in spite of constant attempts to erode Mongolian autonomy. Of critical concern were a number of usurous economic practices of the Chinese, who controlled a large portion of Mongolian trade and debt. The economic imbalance contributed to severe poverty among the lower-class Mongolians. This in turn had resulted in increasing unrest and dissatisfaction.

After the death of the Bogd Khaan ("Holy King") in 1947 at the age of 78, the Mongolian government entered a state of interregnum while Buddhist leaders sought for the Khaan's reincarnation (the Jebtsundamba Khutuktu, a Buddhist spiritual leader). In this intermediary period, the government largely fell under the control of sixty-two year old Khasbazar Ochirbat, the Bogd Khaan's personal secretary, who had been a close personal friend and advisor. Although Ochirbat lacked any official title, in effect he had already served for six years as Mongolia's prime minister.

Ochirbat's informal government - in action if not in name - received wide but not universal approval amongst Mongolians after the Bogd Khaan's death, in part due to Ochirbat's friendship and support from Tsakhiagiin Altankhuyag, a talented forty-year old administrator who served as an economic and diplomatic advisor for the Bogd Khaan. The triumvirate was initially rounded out by the senior military officer, General Ishdorjiin Gürragchaa, who served as the commander-in-chief of the Mongolian Armed Forces.

While waiting for Buddhist leaders to identify the Khaan's reincarnation, Ochirbat and Altankhuyag began taking steps to modernize aspects of the governmental structure and reinvigorate both political and economic independence. In the final years of the Bogd Khaan, modern technology had slowly begun to infiltrate the traditional society of Mongolia. In 1938, Russian engineers constructed both a power generating station and an electrical grid for the capital city of Niislel Khuree, and in 1940, a Nordish emigre built the first telephone exchange. Several high-rise apartment blocks were started in the capital, permitting the rise of a new class of industrial and factory workers, with a degree of modern luxuries that had never before reached Mongolian culture. Ochirbat also opened discussions with both Russia and China about a railway connection to the outside world, which met general approval.

The armed forces, in the form of the Mongolian Army, saw relatively minor investments over the course of the 1930s and 1940s, remaining primarily a force of poorly-paid cavalry and horse-mounted infantry. Supporting arms such as artillery and communications were limited. Although Mongolia had created a small armoured and mechanized force (the Mongolian Army Tank School) in 1936 using Russian equipment (much of gifted outright), follow-on plans had never been implemented. A 1944 report by a Russian military attache noted that "a Chinese invasion of Mongolia would face more severe difficulties from terrain and the weather than from the Mongolian Army... (Mongolia's) sole hope would lie in guerrilla operations in the extensive countryside, while awaiting the response of a Russian mechanized reinforcement."

However, one of the greatest threats to Mongolian independence, and to Ochirbat's de facto government, originated from within the Mongolian Army. Major General Khorloogiin Udval, the deputy commander-in-chief under General Gürragchaa, was a proponent of Pan-Mongolism, advocating that Outer Mongolia should seek reunification with Inner Mongolia, serving as an autonomous region under the overall Chinese banner. Having received his officer training in China in the 1910s, Udval had connections within the Chinese Army and government. Following his promotion to Deputy Commander in 1942, Udval used the privileges of his post to transmit information to the Chinese government, and he used his prerogative as chief of staff to surround himself with like-minded individuals. At least one and possibly more of Udval's senior staff officers were in the pay of Chinese intelligence; in May, General Udval himself was accused of taking Chinese money for a political party, the Mongolian Patriot's Union, that he had founded in 1947.

By April of 1948, the breech between Ochirbat and Udval became increasingly obvious. Ochirbat, councilled by Altankhuyag, felt that Major General Udval was planning a coup-de-tat, and suspected both covert and overt Chinese influence intended to usurp Mongolian independence. The same suspicions were shared by the Russian Federation, which wished to prevent any usurpation of Mongolian sovereignty. The problem Ochirbat faced, however, was that he entirely lacked any sort of legal status to dismiss Udval from his position in the Mongolian Army, nor could he count on the firm support of the Army's most senior officer, General Ishdorjiin Gürragchaa, who took no decisive stance on the political issues.

Ochirbat felt that, particularly with Altankhuyag's support, he could call a Hural to act as a parliament to effectively legitimize the acting administration, recasting Mongolia as a constitutional monarchy or even a republic. This would prove necessary if the Mongolian government was to function much beyond 1948, as the country's political situation required a firm settlement. However, a solution would prove difficult.

General Udval, recognizing that most Mongolians did not support autonomy under Chinese rule, did not feel his position was sufficiently strong to entirely dispossess Ochirbat as the primary civilian leader in the country, but publicly expressed his intent to act if Ochirbat ever called a Hural. He began shifting officers loyal to him, including members of the Mongolian Patriot's Union party, to command of nearby Mongolian Army cavalry regiments, and appointed his nephew, Colonel Balingiin Otgonbayar, to command the Mongolian Army Tank School, the sole mechanized formation in the Mongolian Army, and one of the primary forces posted near the capital. Otgonbayar's swift promotion from captain to colonel came at the expense of the 39-year old Colonel Tsendiin Altankhuyag, the younger brother of Tsakhiagiin Altankhuyag, who was demoted from his position at the Tank School and sent to command a reserve cavalry regiment in the remote border aimag (region) of Khövsgöl.

However, Udval count not replace his own commander, General Gürragchaa. Gürragchaa weighed his loyalties carefully, realizing that his partisanship could decide the course of Mongolian politics for decades to come. Ultimately, Gürragchaa chose to remain largely aloof from the developing crisis, neither permitting Udval freedom of action, nor dismissing him to support Ochirbat.

At this critical juncture, the Russian Federation determined to take a more active hand in the course of events. In the aftermath of their February confrontation with China in the Bering Strait, the Russian government began making more detailed contingency plans to curb Chinese moves. The Main Intelligence Directorate (GRU), under the leadership of Director Vyacheslav Pershin, sent his chief agent in the Far East, Colonel Vasiley Mikhailovitch Grigorev, to evaluate the state of affairs in Mongolia. Arriving in country under a pseudonym in May of 1948, Grigorev virtually stumbled into a chance encounter with Ochirbat. After a long conversation, Ochirbat asked for Russian assistance in setting up contingencies against a coup organized by Udval, provided Russia also gave assurances for the continued independence of Mongolia from both of its neighboring powers. This suited Russian goals perfectly.

Upon Grigorev's return to Russia on May 31st, the GRU and the Russian military, acting under the input given by Ochirbat, composed a plan dubbed 'Operation July Wind', which called for a significant Russian intervention force, crossing the border and racing to the Mongolian capital of Niislel Khuree in order to present an ultimatum to Udval. President Fyodorov rejected the plan, concerned that it would appear Russia was invading a sovereign state. The Russian Ground Forces returned with a modified proposal dubbed 'August Storm'. The GRU gave serious consideration to a third plan ('Hasty Knife') to send a twelve-man team to assassinate General Udval, but this plan was deemed to be too risky, leaving open the potential for the Tank School and the Mongolian Patriot's Union party to continue a coup against the Mongolian government. Grigorev, returning to Mongolia, presented the draft of the plan to Ochirbat and Altankhuyag at a secret meeting on June 18th. After discussions about the timeline, both sides agreed to stage a preventative coup on the morning of August 6th. The Russians, for their part, assured Ochirbat that if General Udval should launch his own coup prior to that time, they would act 'decisively and overwhelmingly' using the plans for Operation July Wind.

During this second trip to Niislel Khuree, Colonel Grigorev and his two assistants worked hard to establish a network of friendly agents who could provide up-to-date information about General Udval and his inner circle of plotters. Grigorev successfully recruited one of the Mongolian tank commanders who provided regular information about the facility, and monitored the various preparations taking place. Early in July, Grigorev discovered the identity of the primary Chinese intelligence operative in Niislel Khuree. Several days later, Grigorev's assistant (Lieutenant Skvortsov) and two Mongolian associates burgled the agent's yurt, stole his papers and codes, and then burned the yurt down to cover their tracks and destroy the agent's radio transmitter. Lieutenant Skvortsov later daringly burgled the headquarters of the Mongolian Patriot's Union Party, photographing more papers and confirming their infiltration by Chinese intelligence agents. Grigorev's crowning achievement, however, came when he confirmed that Colonel Otgonbayar's mistress was a disaffected agent working for Chinese intelligence. Grigorev turned her into a double agent, leaking information to the GRU while passing on fabricated information to the Chinese.

Overall Russian planning was undertaken by General Mikhail Pavlovich Andreyev, a Russian paratroop officer who served as the commander of the GRU's new 'Special Purpose Military Units', or Spetsnaz; one constituent unit of this force, the 1st Separate Special Battalion Vostok, was assigned to carry out Operation August Storm. Andreyev correctly ascertained that Udval's planned coup, when it came, would be led by the soldiers of the Mongolian Army Tank School, located just outside Niislel Khuree. This force, roughly company-sized, was armed with sixteen secondhand Russian T-35 tanks, twelve years old but recently reconstructed with new Chinese components. The School fell under the command of Udvar's nephew, Colonel Balingiin Otgonbayar, who had received a triple promotion (from captain) in order to take command of the school. Otgonbayar also commanded a battalion of motorized riflemen totalling approximately six hundred men, mounted in a motley collection of semi-armoured trucks and cars. Nearly three-quarters of the force of motorized riflemen were foreigners (essentially mercenaries), largely drawn from Chinese soldiers who had deserted during China's 1943-1944 war with Korea, but also including ethnic minorities from within the Russian Federation. Otgonbayar's force represented one of the largest and most credible military forces near Niislel Khuree, and the unit which had the greatest loyalty to Udval's planned pusch.

Meanwhile, Gürragchaa continued to waver between offering full loyalty to Udval - who was now actively moving to secure the loyalty of the Mongolian Army in order to stage his coup - and Ochirbat, who continued to enjoy the widespread support of the Mongolian populace. He remained hesitant to give his loyalty to either side, a choice which effectively played into the continuation of Operation August Storm.

General Andreyev's plan called for a minimum of Russian forces, about eight hundred men in all. The core group of soldiers and officers were drawn from the 1st Separate Special Battalion Vostok, liberally strengthened by volunteers and specialists from other special units. A majority of the troops involved, with the exception of officers, were ethnic Altay and Buryat minorities, many of whom spoke Mongolian, or could pass for a Mongolian at a glance. However, most of the officers selected for August Storm were ethnic Russians or Cossacks. Although the troops wore Russian battle-dress, they had removed any Russian markings from their gear.

Nearly a quarter of the battalion travelled to the capital of Niislel Khuree, riding in buses and trucks with documents identifying them as a railway survey team working on the Trans-Mongolian Railway, which was then starting construction. Another group travelled by horse from the border, crossing in small parties to avoid detection. All of the remaining troops, including most of the 1st Separate Special Battalion Vostok, remained in Ulan-Ude, where they would be airlifted into Mongolia. The troops mostly carried light equipment, with a few exceptions. To cover any preparations, the Russian Army scheduled divisional exercises for several units ranging from Bratsk to Chita.

General Andreyev took steps to neutralize the threat posed by the armoured vehicles of the Tank School. Many of the spetsnaz troops were provided with new RPG-1 antitank rocket launchers, just entering service with the Russian Ground Forces. A T-47 Tsiklon tank was shipped from Irkutsk to the border, where it was partially-disassembled, wrapped in canvas, and shipped across into Mongolia on a convoy of heavyweight trucks, requiring two weeks to reach Niislel Khuree. The Mongolian border guards, paid off in advance by a GRU agent, were informed that the tank hull was a prototype mining tractor. The T-47 was quickly transported to a meatpacking factory in Niislel Khuree which was owned by a Russian national; the turret and tracks were reassembled and the vehicle, named "Lisichka" (Little Fox), prepared for combat under the command of Captain Ivan Rozkhov. A second T-47 was intended to be smuggled across the border in the same fashion, but Andreyev felt the operation had drawn too much attention.

Andreyev's plan was to use a company of the airlifted 1st Separate Special Battalion Vostok to infiltrate the Tank School in a surprise pre-dawn raid, neutralizing their tanks with small disabling charges before withdrawing. Andreyev wished to avoid destroying the tanks outright, and the troops were instructed merely to damage automotive components such as motors or tracks, causing the vehicles to be immobilized until they could be secured. While one team paralyzed the Tank School, another company would seize the radio and telegraph station in Niislel Khuree. The remaining troops would assist Mongolian police troops in protecting government buildings in the city center.

On the evening of August 5th, Colonel Grigorev travelled to meet Ochirbat and Altankhuyag to confirm the final details of Operation August Storm. He found them in a panic, as they had been informed that General Udval had left Niislel Khuree earlier in the day to travel to the Tank School, with every indication that he had learned about the operation. Grigorev calmed them and pointed out that it was already too late to cancel the operation. and suggested they summon General Gürragchaa, who showed up an hour later. Grigorev took the lead and bluntly informed Gürragchaa about the plan, and informed him he could assist the government ministers or be detained. Gürragchaa, after several minutes of thought, agreed to take the government's side. Grigorev then councilled Ochirbat and Altankhuyag to immediately call for a Great Hural, with the goal of writing a new Mongolian constitution and resolving the questionable status of the government. Orchibat immediately agreed.

Although Ochirbat and Altankhuyag feared their plans had been betrayed to General Udval, the Army general remained in the dark about Operation August Storm. He was instead finalizing his own plans to seize control of the Mongolian government, which he planned to kick off on August 7th. Udval intended to enter Niislel Khuree on the morning of the 7th, along with the troops from the Tank School, in order to seize the centers of power, and arrest both Ochirbat and Altankhuyag. Udval anticipated no resistance, and felt his primary concern would be to suppress any pro-Ochirbat public demonstrations in the aftermath of his coup. In a letter to a friend in the Chinese Army, written the afternoon of August 5th, Udval speculated that 'Chinese Army troops shall be necessary to help calm the populace and restore order.' The GRU later verified that on August 4th, a Chinese Army commander had been assigned the task of putting together a military operation to 'reestablish civil order in Outer Mongolia', but events moved faster than the Chinese were prepared for.

In the late evening hours of August 5th, one of General Udval's aides learned that General Gürragchaa had been summoned by Ochirbat, and had never returned to the army headquarters. The plotters then learned that a number of police units in Niislel Khuree had been told to prepare for activity. Wakened from sleep, Udval began to worry, and summoned his nephew Colonel Otgonbayar, who advocated immediate action.

Udval decided that he would return to the capital with a small escort of troops in order to investigate his superior officer's disappearance, while Otgonbayar would rouse the Tank School and follow him to the capital. Udval quickly decided to modify his plans, intending to claim that it was Gürragchaa who had masterminded the coup, while Udval and his forces had merely intervened to stop him. Fascinated by this new plan, he drove into Niislel Khuree, still heedless of the fact that the government was prepared to take action against him.

Operation August Storm started at 2100 hours on August 5th when three parties of Vostok battalion pathfinders embarked in trucks and left the meatpacking plant, led by "Lisichka". As darkness fell, they swiftly drove to the Genghis Khan airfield, southwest of Niislel Khuree, which had closed for the evening. "Lisichka" smashed down the security gate, and one team rounded up the three confused security guards, who surrendered without incident. The remaining pathfinder teams lit flares to mark the runway, and cut the telephone line running from the guard shack.

At 2210 hours, guided by the flares, an unmarked Antonov An-4 landed on the dirt runway, unloaded eighty men from the lead assault company, and took off again. The assault company quickly headed out to infiltrate the Tank School while the first aircraft took off, and a second An-4 made its approach, unloading more troops and equipment.

The assault company took the trucks brought by the pathfinder team, and reached the Tank School at 0450 hours, where they discovered the entire compound was already on alert, with tanks and vehicles being gathered under Colonel Otgonbayar's command. The Russian company commander quickly realized that his mission could not be completed, and contacted General Andreyev, who had remained at the airport, for instructions. As the assault company lacked any heavy weapons, Andreyev ordered them to leave spotters at the Tank School and then withdraw back to the airport. Andreyev ordered Captain Rozkhov to take his tank and several platoons of infantry to obstruct the main road between the Tank School and the center of Niislel Khuree.

Meanwhile, other small bodies of Russian spetsnaz troops moved into the capital with instructions to help secure the safety of the Mongolian government buildings. By mischance, one of these squads, led by Lieutenant Buryatsky, ran into General Udval and his small contingent of troops. Udval, mistaking the Russians for troops from the Tank School, flagged down their truck and demanded that Buryatsky help him search for Gürragchaa. The Mongolian general belatedly spotted their Russian battle-dress and realized his mistake, ordering his troops to open fire. However, his men, armed only with bolt-action rifles, were caught off guard and ill-prepared for a close-quarters encounter with the well-trained Russians, armed with semiautomatic rifles and submachine guns. A brief but wild shootout followed. Udval was wounded and captured, with twenty of his men killed or wounded; only two men escaped. Four Russian soldiers were wounded and two killed. Buryatski was among the wounded, but recognized Udval's face and had him driven immediately to the Bogd Khaan's palace, which served as the government headquarters.

Colonel Otgonbayar, not knowing about his uncle's capture, left the Tank School compound at 0530. Two of his tanks were inoperable and were left behind. Otgonbayar took the remaining fourteen T-35s, accompanied by his truck-mounted riflemen, and started driving to the Bogh Khaan's palace in order to arrest Ochirbat and Altankhuyag. Just a few blocks short of the palace, Otgonbayar encountered an unexpected roadblock at a bridge across the Dund Gol (Middle River): Captain Rozhkov and his tank "Lisichka", backed up by less than a dozen Spetsnaz parachutists under Lieutenant Serov, and a smattering of confused and poorly-equipped Mongolian police dispatched by Ochirbat.

Colonel Otgonbayar stopped his column and sent a runner demanding that the unidentified tank surrender. Rozhkov instead sent back a message that he was acting on the orders of "the Mongolian prime minister", and instructed Otgonbayar to return to the Tank School compound, to await the Great Hural. Otgonbayar, recognizing from the content of Rozhkov's message that the coup was in grave danger, concluded that the roadblock was a desperate bluff, and decided to push his way through. He ordered his fourteen tanks to attack Rozkhov and "Lisichka", precipitating a short and brutally one-sided engagement with the small Russian contingent. "Lisichka" was completely invulnerable to fire from the T-35s, and Rozhkov returned fire with devastating results, destroying Otgonbayar's tank and then three more. A fifth was disabled and lit on fire by the spetsnaz troopers. Otgonbayar bailed out of his vehicle with severe injuries and was captured. The remaining Mongolian tankers and the trailing mounted infantry surrendered en masse. When all was said and done, the dozen Spetsnaz soldiers and six Mongolian policemen who had hunkered down behind "Lisichka" accepted the surrender of nearly three hundred troops. The remainder of Otgonbayar's infantry, panicked at what they had just seen, scattered into the city, discarding their weapons and even uniforms in their haste to escape. They suffered a few minor brushes with spetsnaz troopers and loyal police, who took them into custody.

With the capture of both General Udval and Colonel Otgonbayar by the Russians, the coup lacked any further semblance of leadership, and entirely collapsed. By dusk on August 6th, General Gürragchaa had received professions of loyalty from two Mongolian Army cavalry regiments posted near Niislel Khuree. These regiments were brought into the capital to relieve the Russians. On Colonel Grigorev's advice, Russian involvement was minimalized or whitewashed. Ochirbat's official announcement, made on the afternoon of August 6th, declared that "loyal police and soldiers of the Mongolian Army" had resisted Udval's coup; no Russian presence was mentioned.

The Great Hural called by Ochirbat first convened on the morning of August 7th. Although it lacked any representatives from outlying areas, the Hural voted to name Ochirbat as Prime Minister, giving him "authority to administer Mongolia in the name of the Mongolian people" until a constitution could be finalized. Tsakhiagiin Altankhuyag was also appointed Minister of State. The Hural voted to reconvene as quickly as possible in order to finalize a constitution, which Altankhuyag had already drafted. This draft, with a number of revisions, was accepted by the next Great Hural in September 1948. This constitution firmly settled any question of Mongolian independence, establishing a constitutional monarchy headed by the Bogd Khaan (whose new reincarnation was announced by monks in late September), with a Prime Minister to serve as effective head of government. A regular Hural was also instituted in order to assist in administering affairs.

Due to Mongolia's remoteness, the events in Niislel Khuree did not became more widely known to the outside world until August 12th, when Ochirbat allowed the telegraph station to reopen. Even at that point, news coming out of the country was censored, and no account even from official sources was available to the press until the middle of September. In Petrograd, President Fyodorov privately informed the British and Grand Alliance ambassadors that Russia had assisted "the Mongolian Prime Minister" with a "potential security situation" during a series of private interviews on August 8th, but he shared only sparse details and minimized any mention of Russian military involvement. The Japanese ambassador, who had been unavailable, was similarly informed a day later.

Although both the Mongolian and Russian leaders feared a Chinese retaliation or even outright invasion in response to Operation August Storm, the news of events in Niislel Khuree did not provoke any immediate response from China. However, in the following months, Mongolian border troops faced a surge in border incidents which resulted in increasingly high tensions.

General Gürragchaa, after assisting Ochirbat in the two months following the coup, retired from the Mongolian Army in October, citing age. Ochirbat was not sad to see the unreliable senior officer go, and in his place appointed Colonel Tsendiin Altankhuyag (the younger brother of Tsakhiagiin Altankhuyag) to command the Mongolian Army, raising him to the rank of General. The new army commander set about to rapidly modernize his forces, and requested a Russian military mission to advise and train a new mechanized cadre, as well as create the Mongolian Royal Air Force. General Altankhuyag also began working to address the Chinese border incidents.

The Russian troops under General Andreyev remained on hand until late August at an encampment located close to the Genghis Khan Airport, ready to assist in dealing with any remaining security issues. When no problems arose, they returned north by the beginning of September. However, more Russians came to Niislel Khuree to replace them, serving as part of the Russian military aid mission to Mongolia.